Following an unprecedented mobilization of resources (financial and otherwise) for HIV, new infections are down across much of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), prevention interventions are having some impact, and access to care and treatment services are up, which has reduced AIDS-associated mortality. Still, two-thirds of all people living with HIV are in SSA, as are half of all new infections and nearly three-quarters of AIDS-related deaths. Meanwhile, the lingering global economic malaise is squeezing donor and domestic budgets alike, and a global shift in focus from HIV to health systems and other health concerns may jeopardize hard-won gains. It’s an ambivalent picture that portends an uncertain future, and this course unpacks the political, economic, socio-cultural and epidemiologic nuances of HIV in the region. Global, national and community-level perspectives are explored through a mix of primary and secondary sources, as well as quantitative and qualitative literature. Following a review of HIV epidemiology and pathophysiology, the course examines the rollouts of HIV prevention, care and treatment services (particular attention is given to the South African epidemic and AIDS response); costs, financing and global HIV governance; the relationship between AIDS, sex and poverty; and concludes by considering the future of the AIDS epidemic and response in SSA.