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Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E., Berne, R. & Chellman, C. 2005. School Finance Court Cases and Disparate Racial Impact: The Contribution of Statistical Analysis in New York. Education and Urban Society, February 2005, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 151-173.
Although analyses of state school finance systems rarely focus on the distribution of funds to students of different races, the advent of racial discrimination as an issue in school finance court cases may change that situation. In this article, we describe the background, analyses, and results of plaintiffs' testimony regarding racial discrimination in Campaign for Fiscal Equity Inc. v. State of New York. Plaintiffs employed multiple regression and public finance literature to show that New York State's school finance system had a disparate racial impact on New York City students. We review the legal basis for disparate racial impact claims, with particular emphasis on the role of quantitative statistical work, and then describe the model we developed and estimated for the court case. Finally, we discuss the defendants' rebuttal, the Court's decision, and conclude with observations about the role of analysis in judicial decision making in school finance.
Stiefel, L., Berne, R., Iatarola, P. & Fruchter, N. 2000. High School Size: The Effects on Budgets and Performance in New York City. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Spring.
Combines budget and performance information to study the effects of high school size. Suggests that since small high schools are more effective for minority and poor students, and the budget per student is found to be similar for small and large schools, policymakers might support the creation of more small high schools. (SLD)
Berne, R., Stiefel, L., Ladd, H.F., Chalk, R. & Hansen, J.S. 1999. Concepts of Equity: 1970 to Present. Equity and Adequacy Issues in Education Finance: Background Papers, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. .
Berne, R., Fruchter, N. & Parrish, T. 1999. Financing Special Education: Proposed Reforms in New York City. in Thomas Parrish, Jay Chambers, and Cassie Guarino, eds., Funding Special Education, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corw.
Berne, R. & Stiefel, L. 1999. School Site Based Financing in Large U.S. Cities. in Margaret Goertz and Allan Odden, eds., School-Based Financing, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corw.
Berne, R., Moser, M. & Stiefel, L. 1998. Equity and Efficiency in K-12 Education: Thirty Years of History. in Stuart Nagel, ed., Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 9. Stanford, Conn.: JAI Press.
Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R. & Berne, R. 1998. Intra-District Equity in Four Large Cities: Methods, Data, and Results. Journal of Education Finance, Volume 23, No. 4, Spring 1998, pp 447-467.
Reviews the school-level resource-allocation literature and presents findings of a study of school-district expenditures in Chicago, Forth Worth, New York, and Rochester. Horizontal equity results show that in Chicago, New York, and Fort Worth, most coefficients of variation are below 0.15. Rochester's system is slightly less equitable. For general funds, all cities show mixed vertical-equity results.
Iatarola, P. & Stiefel, L., Fruchter, N., Berne, R. 1998. The Effects of Size of Student Body on School Costs: New York City High Schools. Small Schools, Big Imaginations: A Creative Look at Urban Public Schools. Edited by Fine, Michelle and Janis Somerville. Cross City Campaign for Urban School Reform.
School reform leaders from Chicago (Illinois), Denver (Colorado), New York (New York), Seattle (Washington), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and Los Angeles (California) created the Cross City Campaign for Urban School Reform to work to improve urban education so that all urban youth are well-prepared for postsecondary education, work, and citizenship. Papers in this volume provide insights into an approach advocated by the Cross City Campaign, the small schools movement.
Berne, R. & Stiefel, L. 1997. Student-Level School Resource Measures. in William J. Fowler, editor, Selected Papers in School Finance. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center on Education Statistics, NCES 97-536.
Berne, R., Moser, M. & Stiefel, L. 1997. The Coming of Age of School-Level Finance Data. Journal of Education Finance, Vol. 22, No. 3, Winter 1997, pp 246-254.
Discusses implications for school finance data collection and analysis of shifting to schools as key management and policy units. Discusses questions that school-level data can answer concerning resource utilization efficiency, effectiveness, intent, and equity. Outlines conceptual issues (school definition and identification) and database realities. Illustrates issues problems, and principles, using examples from Rochester, New York.
Berne, R. 1996. Cost-Effectiveness in Education, A Synopsis. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Board of Regents.
Berne, R., Ascher, C. & Fruchter, N. 1996. Hard Lessons: Public Schools and Privatization. New York, NY: Twentieth Century Fund. .
Berne, R. 1996. Measuring and Reporting Financial Condition. in James Perry & Associates, Handbook of Public Administration, Second Edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Berne, R. & Fruchter, N. 1995. A Modest Proposal for Improving New York State's Educational Outcomes. in Temporary New York State Commission on Constitutional Revision, Effective Government Now for the New Century. Albany, N.Y.: Temporary New York State Commission on Constitutional Revision.
Berne, R. & Netzer, D. 1995. Discrepancies Between Ideal Characteristics of a Property Tax System and Current Practice in New York. in David Monk, editor, Final Report. Study on the Generation of Revenues for Education. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Board of Regents, February 3. Published in Journal of Education Finance, Vol. 21, No. 1, Summer 1995, pp 38-56.
Berne, R., Cipollina, N., Netzer, D. & Stiefel, L. 1995. Estimating the Fiscal Impact of Secession: The Case of Staten Island and New York City. Public Budgeting and Financial Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer 1995, pp 147-169.