The heart of NYU Wagner's programs is our faculty. An amalgam of full-time, clinical/research/visiting, and adjunct professors, they are outstanding teachers, expert researchers and committed practitioners.
Ospina, S., Foldy, E.G., El Hadidy, W., Dodge, J., Hofmann-Pinilla, A., & Su, C. 2012. Social Change Leadership as Relational Leadership. In Uhl-Bien, M., and S. Ospina (eds.) Advancing Relational Leadership Theory. Information Age Publishers.
Foldy, E.G. 2012. Something of collaborative manufacture: The construction of race and gender identities in organizations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.
Buckley, Tamara R.
Foldy, Erica Gabrielle 2010. A pedagogical model for increasing race-related multicultural counseling competency. 2010. The Counseling Psychologist 38 (5): 691-713.
Research suggests advances in students’ multicultural competence following multicultural counseling training. Increasingly, however, multicultural counseling courses have emphasized self awareness, which has increased the affective demands of these courses and student resistance to learning the material. This paper proposes a pedagogical model to enhance multicultural counseling training that attends both to content and process variables that may impact classroom learning. Its fundamental premise is that psychological safety, the belief that the classroom is safe for taking interpersonal risks, must be present for increasing knowledge and awareness around the charged, and often taboo, topics of race and culture in multicultural counseling training. The model integrates research from psychology, education, and management, including identity threat, culture-centered teaching practices, racial identity, and learning frames. The authors conclude with implications for classroom teaching.
Foldy, E. G. & Walters, J. 2010. A world without prisons: Improving prisoners' lives and
transforming the justice system. Justice Now Teaching Case. The Electronic Hallwayand Research Center for Leadership in Action, 2004. Available fromhttps://hallway.org.
Cassandra Shaylor and Cynthia Chandler founded Justice Now in 2000. They push hard for prison abolition while advocating for better health care and conditions for prisoners in California's two largest women's prisons. They prioritize the leadership of prisoners, and offer interns the opportunity to work and meet with women inside prisons to learn firsthand about prisoners' human struggles as well as the policy implications of state sponsored violence. Their strategies include the following:
In this leadership story Shaylor and Chandler, along with Justice Now interns and activists, describe their experiences in this case example.
Ospina, S. and E. G. Foldy 2010. Building Bridges from Margins: The Work of Leadership in Social Change Organizations. The Leadership Quarterly
Attention to the relational dimensions of leadership represents a new frontier of leadership research and is an expression of the growing scholarly interest in the conditions that foster collective action within and across boundaries. This article explores the antecedents of collaboration from the perspective of social change organizations engaged in processes of collaborative governance. Using a constructionist lens, the study illuminates the question how do social change leaders secure the connectedness needed for collaborative work to advance their organization's mission? The article draws on data from a national, multi-year, multi-modal qualitative study of social change organizations and their leaders. These organizations represent disenfranchised communities which aspire to influence policy makers and other social actors to change the conditions that affect their members' lives. Narrative analysis of transcripts from in-depth interviews in 38 organizations yielded five leadership practices that foster strong relational bonds either within organizations or across boundaries with others. The article describes how these practices nurture interdependence either by forging new connections, strengthening existing ones, or capitalizing on strong ones.
Foldy, E.G. & Buckley, T.R. 2010. Re-creating Street Level Practice: The Role of Routines, Work Groups and Team Learning. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory.
Ample research documents the ubiquity of routines in street-level practice. Some individual-level and organizational-level research has explored how to break street-level routines, but little has looked at the work group level. Our study observed teams of state child welfare workers over 2.5 years, documenting whether they discarded old routines and learned new ones. Results suggest that team characteristics such as clear direction and reflective behaviors had greater influence on team learning than individual characteristics such as stress level, tenure, and educational level. We suggest that group-level factors be included in future models of what enables the re-creation of street-level practice.
Foldy, E.G. Buckley, T.R. & Rivard. P. 2009. Power, Safety and Learning in Racially Diverse Groups. Academy of Management Learning and Education 8(1) 2009.
Ospina, S. and E. G. Foldy 2009. A critical Review of Race and Ethnicity in the Leadership Literature: Surfacing Context, Power and the Collective Dimensions of Leadership.. The Leadership Quarterly, 20
Foldy, E.G., Goldman, L. & Ospina, S. 2009. The leadership task of prompting cognitive
shifts: Shaping perceptions of issues and constituencies to achieve public service goals.. Public 18. (Published by ESADE Business School.).
In summary, these exemplary non-profit organizations were often very strategic in how they framed problems, solutions and the people they served. This suggests that public organizations could also be more deliberate in their framing processes. Organizational leaders might want to talk explicitly about the shifts they are trying to create, and whether these fit together or act at cross purposes, in addition to how well they match the organization’s goals and mission. Prompting cognitive shifts is at the heart of public leadership.
Ospina, S., Dodge, J., Foldy, E.G. & Hofmann, A. 2008. Taking the action turn: Lessons from bringing participation to qualitative research. Handbook of Action Research, 2nd Edition. 2008.
Taylor, Rudolph & Foldy, E.G. 2008. Teaching Reflective Practices in the Action Science/Action Inquiry Tradition: Key Stages, Concepts, and Practices. Handbook of Action Research, 2nd Ed. Sage Publications.
This chapter describes an approach for teaching reflective practice in the action science/action inquiry tradition. We offer a theoretical background for our approach and then break it down into three key stages: (1) understanding the social construction of reality; (2) recognizing one's own contribution to that construction; and (3) taking action to reshape that construction. We articulate key concepts (e.g. the ladder of inference and competing commitments) and tools (e.g. the change immunity map and the learning pathways grid) for each stage. We end with suggestions for assignments that integrate learning across stages and concepts. In short, we offer a conceptually grounded set of concrete practices for teaching reflective practice.
Sensegiving -- shaping how people understand themselves, their work, and others engaged in that work -- is critical to the work of organizational leadership. We propose the cognitive shift, a change in how an organizational audience understands an important element of the organization's work, as a desired outcome of the sensegiving process. Organizations try to spur these shifts in two categories: about their issue and about their primary constituency, the population it is designed to serve or mobilize. This approach makes two contributions: It re-directs attention from individual leaders' behaviors and characteristics to the work of leadership, as opposed to the agents through which it is carried out. Second, it operationalizes the intangible process of meaning-making by breaking it down into discrete units that are relatively equivalent and, therefore, comparable, providing a systematic way to analyze and map cognitive leadership processes.
Recent scholarship has shown that, despite the broad representation of women in the workplace, gender inequities in organizations remain widespread. Because gender schema ”embedded ways of thinking about men and women” contribute to this phenomenon, addressing such mental models should be a part of gender equity initiatives. This article provides data that suggest that some individuals hold within themselves quite contradictory schemas of men and of women. It then illustrates how individuals can use these internal inconsistencies to push through superficial understandings of gender to more complex ones. By facilitating this learning process in training and other kinds of organizational events, change agents can strengthen organizational efforts to achieve gender equity.
Creed, W.E.D. & Foldy, E.G. 2005. Out Front on the Issues: Explaining the Paradox of Resistance to Gay Stigma in Organizations. A contribution to the symposium "Overcoming Barriers to Equality Among Diverse Sexual Orientations at Work." Academy of Management, Honolulu, HI.
Dodge, J., Ospina, S. & Foldy, E.G. 2005. Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry. Public Administration Review, Vol. 65, May/June, No.3, pp. 286.
A traditional view of scholarly quality defines rigor as the application of method and assumes an implicit connection with relevance. But as an applied field, public administration requires explicit attention to both rigor and relevance. Interpretive scholars' notions of rigor demand an explicit inclusion of relevance as an integral aspect of quality. As one form of interpretive research, narrative inquiry illuminates how this can be done. Appreciating this contribution requires a deeper knowledge of the logic of narrative inquiry, an acknowledgement of the diversity of narrative approaches, and attention to the implications for judging its quality. We use our story about community-based leadership research to develop and illustrate this argument.
In this article, I reflect on how my white racial identity shaped and, in turn, was shaped by my dissertation data collection. I identify specific choices and experiences in the research interviews that were influenced by my race, using data both from my own journal as well as feedback about my interviews from two informants of color. I also trace how conducting the interviews and writing about them in my journal affected how I make meaning of my racial identity. I offer these reflections as a contribution to two conversations, both related to exploring and learning about race. First, my discussion of how being white influenced my study contributes to important dialogues about how researcher identities reverberate through the research process. Second, my consideration of the change in my racial identity suggests implications for those interested in learning from and about race. Specifically, it suggests that whites must claim a voice on race in order to contribute meaningfully to cross-racial learning.
Foldy, E.G. 2005. From First-Person Inquiry to Second-Person Dialogue: A Response to the European-American Collaborative Challenging Whiteness. Action Research 3 (1): 63-67, March.
The Collaborative raises three areas in which more dialogue would be useful. First, they express a desire for more data about how I was seen by my informants of color. They use that point to raise broader questions about validity: How can I, as a white person, know what is not being said by my informants of color? How can I be sure that my informants were candid with me, given the ‘strong taboos that prohibit revealing oneself . . . to the white world'? Second, they point out that my dissertation research was not emancipatory or mutual: it was a relatively traditional qualitative design, with a clear demarcation between researcher and researched. Finally, they raise the concept of ‘critical humility' and the spirit of inquiry in doing this work. I will address each of these areas in turn.
The Burlington Community Land Trust has a radical vision: to secure housing as a basic right, not as a commodity to be bought and sold. The Trust enables low-income families to buy homes on land it owns, controls and keeps perpetually affordable. Founded over 20 years ago, the Trust uses the following approaches: Pursue a Practical Approach: Low-income people receive subsidies from the Trust to buy their homes. The Trust also buys the land on which the home sits, and leases it to the homebuyers. When the homeowners sell, they receive 25% of the increased equity. The Trust gets 75% and uses this to keep the housing permanently affordable. Build a Grassroots Base: The Trust cultivates a membership of 2,400 people. The organization conducts a membership drive and holds neighborhood meetings before taking on a new project in a community. Institutionalize Democratic Leadership: All members have voting rights. The community-based board makes all substantive program decisions. Balance Opposing Opinions: The organization maintains a diverse mix of grassroots and conservative interests on its board as well as among its membership and supporters. The Trust encourages debate. According to one member, disagreement actually serves as a bond: “We have to get it right.”
Public-sector organizations tend to be more racially and ethnically diverse than private-sector organizations, leading to the challenge of enhancing heterogeneous work group effectiveness. Recent work suggests that a group's "diversity perspective," or set of beliefs about the role of cultural diversity, moderates diverse group performance. One perspective, the integration and learning perspective, argues that heterogeneous groups function better when they believe that cultural identities can be tapped as sources of new ideas and experiences about work. However, simply holding the integration and learning perspective may not be sufficient. Research on general group learning has shown that it requires particular behaviors and cognitive frames. This article integrates recent work on diversity perspectives with long-standing research on team learning to propose a conceptual model of learning in culturally diverse groups. It suggests that both the integration and learning perspective and more generic learning frames and skills must be present.
This reader uses an alternative approach to gender at work to provoke new thinking about traditional management topics, such as leadership and negotiation.Presents students with an alternative conceptual approach to gender in the workplace. Connects gender with other dimensions of difference such as race and class for a deeper understanding of diversity in organizations. Illustrates how traditional images of competence and the ideal worker result in narrow ways of thinking about work, limiting both opportunity and organizational effectiveness. Provokes new ways of thinking about leadership, human resource management, negotiation, globalization and organizational change.
Ely, R., Foldy, E.G. & Scully, M. 2003. Reader in Gender, Work and Organization. Blackwell Publishers.
This reader uses an alternative approach to gender at work to provoke new thinking about traditional management topics, such as leadership and negotiation. Presents students with an alternative conceptual approach to gender in the workplace. Connects gender with other dimensions of difference such as race and class for a deeper understanding of diversity in organizations. Illustrates how traditional images of competence and the ideal worker result in narrow ways of thinking about work, limiting both opportunity and organizational effectiveness. Provokes new ways of thinking about leadership, human resource management, negotiation, globalization and organizational change.
Foldy, E.G. 2002. 'Managing' Diversity: Power and Identity in Organizations. in I. Aaltio-Marjosola & A. Mills (Eds.) Gender, Identities and the Cultures of Organizations. London, Routledge.
Gender, Identity and the Culture of Organizations considers how organizations operate as spaces in which minds are gendered and men and women constructed. This edited collection brings together four powerful themes that have developed within the field of organizational analysis over the past two decades: organizational culture; the gendering of organizations; postmodernism and organizational analysis; and critical approaches to management. A range of essays by distinguished writers from countries including the UK, USA, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden, explore innovative methods for the critical theorizing of organizational cultures. In particular, the book reflects the growing interest in the impact of organizational identity formation and its implications for individuals and organizational outcomes in terms of gender. The book also introduces research designs, methods and methodologies by which can be used to explore the complex interrelationships between gender, identity and the culture of organizations.
Foldy, E.G. 2001. Learning from Diversity: A Comparison of Non-Profit and For-Profit Organizations. Association for Research on Non-profit Organizations and Voluntary Action. Miami, Fl. November 28-30.
Non-profit and for-profit organizations are both engaging with the opportunities and challenges of a demographically diverse workforce. However, their different missions, structures and constituencies can result in varied approaches to addressing difference. This paper, based on broader dissertation research, compares the intentions and experiences of two small organizations, a for-profit and a non-profit, both of which reemphasize inclusion as a guiding principle. However, they manifest these principles in very different ways, with divergent implications for their employees' experiences at work.
Litvin, D. & Foldy, E.G. 2001. Doing 'Diversity Work:' Snapshots from Around the World. Academy of Management. Washington, D. C. August 6-8.
Foldy, E.G. 2001. Inside Out and Outside in: Conducting Research on Identity. a contribution to the symposium, "Beyond race and gender: Alternative research methods for the study of alternative identities in organizations."Academy of Management, Washington, D. C., August 6-8.
Foldy, E.G., Rudolph, J.R. & Taylor, S.S. 2001. First Person Practice: Using Action Science/Action Inquiry to Improve Ourselves, Our Interactions, and Our Research. Professional Development Workshop. Academy of Management. Washington, D. C. August 6-8.
Rudolph, J. & Taylor, S., Foldy, E.G. 2000. Collaborative Off-line Reflection: A Way to Develop Skill in Action Science and Action Inquiry. Handbook of Action Research. Edited by Reason, P. and H. Bradbury. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Handbook of Action Research draws together the different strands of action research, reveals their diverse applications and demonstrates their interrelations. The text articulates an emergent, participatory worldview that will challenge the modernist paradigm and value system.
This far-reaching volume, in illustrating the latest approaches in social inquiry, moves the field forward with innovative insights and participatory practices. It grapples with questions of how to integrate knowledge with action, how to collaborate with co-researchers in the field, and how to present the necessarily "messy" components of such participative research in a coherent fashion. The organization of the volume reflects the many different issues and levels of analysis represented.
Foldy, E.G. & Creed, W.E.D. 1999. Action Learning, Fragmentation and the Interaction of Single, Double, and Triple Loop Change: A Case of Gay and Lesbian Workplace Advocacy. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35 (2).
Proposes an elaborated action-learning framework that decomposes action-learning method into the three components of argument, practice, and outcome. Illumination of multiple facets of change; Analysis of the interaction of the three methods in significant change processes; Application of the framework to a case of gay and lesbian workplace advocacy; How the different action-learning methods work together to create change in an organization.
Foldy, E.G. & Nourse, P. 1998. Building Progressive Political Power: A Study of Selected State Political Coalitions. Cambridge, MA: Commonwealth Institute.