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Araral, Eduardo. Fritzen, Scott. Howlett, Michael. Ramesh, M. Wu, Xun (eds.) 2012. Routledge Handbook of Public Policy. Published November 20th 2012 by Routledge – 534 pages.
This Handbook provides a comprehensive global survey of the policy process. Written by an outstanding line up of distinguished scholars and practitioners, the Handbook covers all aspects of the policy process including:
This is an invaluable resource for all scholars, graduate students and practitioners in public policy and policy analysis.
The Rockefeller Foundation’s Bellagio Center, nestled in the foothills of the
Fritzen, Scott, Basu S. 2011. From information to indicators: Monitoring progress in the fight against corruption in multi-project, multi-stakeholder organizations. From information to indicators: Monitoring progress in the fight against corruption in multi-project, multi-stakeholder organizations.
Fritzen, Scott. and S. Basu 2011. The public is plural: Local governments in public-private partnerships. Policy & Society.
Fritzen, Scott, Basu,S. 2011. The strategic use of information in anti-corruption agencies: Evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal of Public Administration.
Fritzen, Scott, Wu, X. 2010. Conclusion: Contradictions, contingencies and the terrain ahead.. Reasserting the Public in Public Services: New Public Management Reforms, Routledge.
Fritzen, Scott. 2010. Envisioning public administration as a scholarly field in the year 2020: Toward global and comparative administrative theorizing. Public Administration Review.
Fritzen, Scott. 2010. Framework and Recommendations for the Viet Nam National Program of Action for Children 2011-2020. UNICEF, Viet Nam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2009. From ‘good to great’ in global public policy education.. Global-Is-Asian.
Fritzen, Scott. 2009. Introduction. In Transforming Asian Governance (ed: Scott Fritzen and M. Ramesh); London: Routledge, 19 pp.
Fritzen, Scott. 2009. Public Administration. Southeast Asia: Regional Dynamics, National Differences (ed: Mark Beeson); New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 74-90.
Fritzen, Scott. 2008. Facing Constraints, Seizing New Opportunities: A Strategic Management Review of the United Nations Population Fund Program in Indonesia, 2006-2010. UNFPA, Indonesia.
Community-Driven Development (CDD) projects have motivated both large amounts of funding from international development agencies and a number of general critiques centering on the potential susceptibility of decentralized projects to local elite capture. Drawing on case analysis and surveys fielded in 250 Indonesian sub-districts, this paper subjects the design logic of a CDD project to close empirical testing. Results suggest that while CDD projects can help create spaces for a broader range of elite and non-elite community leaders to emerge, elite control of project decision-making is pervasive. However, its effects can be influenced by project-initiated accountability arrangements, such as democratic leadership selection.
Fritzen, Scott. 2007. Crafting performance measurement systems to reduce corruption vulnerabilities in complex, multistakeholder organizations: The Case of the World Bank. Measuring Business Excellence 11(4): 23-32.
Purpose – The paper explores an emerging challenge for large public-sector bureaucracies: developing information and performance measurement systems that support anti-corruption efforts.
Fritzen, Scott, Lim, P.O. 2007. Decentralization in developing countries. Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 498-503.
Attempts to ‘regulate’ civil service personnel- to hold bureaucrats accountable, whether to politicians, the people, professional standards or the rule of law- are as old as the politician-bureaucrat relationship itself. Politicians and citizens throughout Southeast Asia are calling for greater bureaucratic accountability in a variety of country settings: one-party states and emerging democracies, and in countries with capable as well as rudimentary bureaucracies. This paper presents an analytical framework that unpacks the idioms used in common accountability reforms applied in Southeast Asian countries into four categories – ‘rules’, ‘watchdogs’, ‘culture’ and ‘re-engineering’ – and relates reform selection and implementation to country governance characteristics. The framework is used to identify reform opportunities, constraints and likely trajectories in the diverse Southeast Asian context.
Fritzen, Scott. 2007. From infrastructure to institutions: Reforming primary health care in Vietnam.. In Social Issues in Vietnam’s Economic Transformation: Vol 2 (ed: Giang Thanh Long), Hanoi: National Political Publishing House, pp. 51-86.
Fritzen, Scott. 2007. Growth with equity over Vietnam’s economic transition: A political economy perspective. Economic Dynamics of Asia in the New Millennium, Singapore: World Scientific, pp. 367-399.
Fritzen, Scott., Howlett, M., Ramesh M., Wu, X. 2007. Integrated Policymaking for Sustainable Development: An operational manual. United Nations Environment Program, Geneva.
Developing countries that were early, enthusiastic adopters of Primary Health Care often developed an extensive – but eventually dilapidated and under-utilized – network of public clinics at the grassroots. As paradigms and investment patterns of health sector reform have shifted, the question of what role these public clinics can meaningfully play, and how best to revitalize them, has become important in a number of countries. This paper evaluates the strategy taken by, and outcomes of, a major attempt in Vietnam to revitalize the grassroots infrastructure of primary health care against the backdrop of the country’s economic transition. The project’s substantial supply-side investments in infrastructure led to marginal increases in utilization and the quality of preventive health services provided by the centers. But because the project failed to take adequate stock of broader, public sector-wide trends and reforms over the transition, the investments had little impact on the incentives, accountability patterns and capacities of clinic staff and the local authorities. Such institutional factors are heavily implicated, in Vietnam as elsewhere, in the substantial and often increasing disparities in service access and quality that continue to afflict transitional health sectors.
International donors, long-standing supporters of decentralization reforms in developing countries, often face the challenge of aligning program assistance to the great variety of country governance settings in which many operate. This paper presents a framework for assessing the implications of governance and institutional context for a range of programming challenges, with particular reference to the challenge of decentralized programming. The framework has three conceptual steps. Country governance and institutional change environments are first described in terms of how enabling governance capacities are for decentralized programming, and how rapid and predictable the rate of institutional change is. Second, these environmental considerations are associated with overall assistance modalities of donors, in areas such as the type of partners sought and interventions selected. Third, a range of options concerning the aims, scope and extent of decentralizing programming are reviewed and linked to the diagnostic framework above. The framework is broadly derived from organizational contingency theory, which it is argued has been relatively neglected in the study of development administration due to a preponderance of analysis based on single-case studies.
This paper examines how various poverty assessment modalities serve to strengthen the governance capacities necessary to target the poor. Large-scale surveys and qualitative, 'bottom-up' assessments both have shortcomings in this regard. A 'multi-level' synthesis would in theory link a unified indicator framework (such as the Millennium Development Goals) to localized situation assessments and facilitate multi-sectoral efforts to target the poor. Case studies of actual efforts to do this from Vietnam and Burma highlight the way in which the governance context of a country must be taken into account when designing such efforts.
Fuller, B.W., Fritzen, Scott. 2007. Negotiation and conflict management: A Public Policy Perspective.. Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. (online and forthcoming in the second edition print edition, 2007) 8 pp.
There is little doubt that globalization, however defined, has hit the field of
Fritzen, Scott. 2007. Reorienting health ministry roles in transition settings: Capacity and strategy gaps. Health Policy 83: 73-83.
The study of the health workforce has gained in prominence in recent years, as the dynamic interconnections between human resource issues and health system effectiveness have come into sharper focus. This paper reviews lessons relating to strategic management challenges emerging from the growing literature in this area. Workforce issues are strategic: they affect overall system performance as well as the feasibility and sustainability of health reforms. Viewing workforce issues strategically forces health authorities to confront the yawning gaps between policy and implementation in many developing countries.
Munira, S.L., Fritzen, S. 2007. What influences government adoption of new vaccines in developing countries? A policy process approach.. Social Science & Medicine 65: 1751-1764.
This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which
Fritzen, Scott, Brassard . 2006. Bat Binh Dang va Nhung Lua Chon Chinh Sach [Inequality: A Policy Assessment]. Hoat Dong Khoa Hoc [Science Activities Review], 47(2): 57-60. [Vietnamese journal published by Ministry of Science and Technology].
Fritzen, Scott. 2006. Beyond ‘political will’: How institutional context shapes the implementation of anti-corruption policies,. Public Programs Specialist/Administrative Events Specialist.
Many anti-corruption initiatives face an inherent dilemma: the very actors which must adopt and implement policies to curb corruption are those which may face weak, or even negative, incentives to do so. Where corruption in authoritarian states is already endemic, a vicious form of this “orthodox paradox” emerges, as elites adopting anti-corruption measures attempt to police themselves. This paper presents an institutionalist approach to linking the context of anti-corruption reforms to their likely effectiveness and sustainability. It applies this approach to the assessment of Vietnam’s 2005 anti-corruption law.
Fritzen, Scott. 2006. How do governance capacities affect patterns of crisis management? Towards an analytical framework, in C. Raj Kumar and D.K. Srivastava (eds) Tsunami and disaster management: Law and Governance, Hong Kong: Sweet and Maxwell, pp. 79-10.
Fritzen, Scott. 2006. Managing the health workforce in Vietnam: Situation analysis and recommendations. World Bank, Vietnam.
Decentralization occupies an important space in debates over public-sector reform in doi moi Vietnam. This paper assesses the changing distribution of roles, responsibilities and resources across levels of government over the past decade. Vietnam is incrementally transfering greater administrative and fiscal responsibilities to the provincial level. In addition, the Communist Party is attempting to prevent local corruption through a much touted “grassroots democratization” initiative. Yet such moves towards decentralization, however cautious, are problematic in terms of their bureacratic politics and potential impacts on poverty. Incentives for bureacratic actors and local leaders to transfer meaningful control downwards are weak or non-existent within the current governance structure, which centralizes political power and emphasizes hierarchical, sectoral controls over decision-making and resources. And decentralization trends are exacerbating the weak administrative and fiscal capacities of poorer provinces, threatening to reinforce rather than reduce Vietnam’s widening regional and rural-urban disparities. A more proactice role for the center in redistributing resources, providing technical support and establishing a facilitative policy framework will be crucial if decentralization is to contribute towards improved socioeconomic outcomes in Vietnam’s poorest regions.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. Explaining What Works: A Guide to Smart Practice Case Study Design and Implementation. UNICEF India.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. From Supply- to Demand-Driven Curriculum Reform in Public Administration Education. National Academy of Public Admnistration and Danish Agency for International Development, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. Local elites, popular democracy and poverty targeting: Making the linkages in community development projects. World Bank, Indonesia.
Fritzen, Scott, Mutebi A. 2005. Local Governance, Transparency and Anti-Corruption in Community-Driven Development in Vietnam. World Bank, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. Short-duration, high-intensity executive education: Mission impossible? Center for the Development of Teaching and Learning. DTLink, Vol 9(2), cover story.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. Teaching Public Policy and Administration: Controversies and Directions. in Jabes, J. (ed) The Role of Public Administration in Alleviating Poverty and Improving Governance, Manila: Asian Development Bank, pp. 571-575.
Fritzen, Scott. 2005. The ‘misery’ of implementation: Governance, institutions and anti-corruption in Vietnam. in Tarling, N. (ed) Corruption and good governance in Asia, New York: Routledge, pp. 98-120.
Implementation of anti-corruption programs is plagued by a paradox: the very actors posited to be the source of the problem are those most critical to implementation success. This paper presents a framework for understanding the large gaps that exist between policy intentions and outcomes in anti-corruption programs. It applies this to ‘grassroots democratization’ as an anti-corruption initiative in Vietnam, a high-profile policy mandating greater transparency in local budget use and participation in decisionmaking. Local leaders in this case face weak incentives for implementation that stem from both poor policy design and local institutional environments. But as with many anti-corruption programs in adverse environments, potential exists for the initiative to
Fritzen, Scott, Brassard C. 2005. Vietnam Inequality Report 2005. Department for International Development (UK) – published report commissioned for the Vietnam National Assembly.
This paper explores the tensions and opportunities surrounding Vietnam’s attempt to reach the goals of rapid economic growth while also being a Socialist “fair society.” It does so by looking at the phenomenon of inequality in the process of economic transition and development.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. Bureaucrats and Politicians in Southeast Asia. Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., (online and forthcoming in the second edition print edition, 2007), 9 pp.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. Crisis policymaking and management in Southeast Asia. Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, (ed: J. Rabin), New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc (online and forthcoming in the second edition print edition, 2007), 9 pp.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. Decentralization in East Asia: Making it work for children. UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Region, Bangkok.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. Monitoring corruption in World Bank projects: An organizational learning approach. World Bank, Indonesia.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. Using incentives and accountability to improve school performance: Proposals for the Ministry of Education and Training in Vietnam. Melbourne University Private for the World Bank Primary Teacher Development Project, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2004. “Introduction” and “Strengthening social protection in low income countries”. Fritzen, S. and V. Kumar [eds.] (2004), Social security in a developing world context, New Delhi: Serials Publications, pp. 1-17 and 90-108.
Fritzen, Scott. 2003. Data quality and empirical strategy in the Indonesian Governance and Decentralization Survey. World Bank, Indonesia.
Fritzen, Scott. 2003. Donors, local development groups and institutional reform over Vietnam's development decade. in Kerkvliet, B.J., Heng, R.H.K. and Hock, D.K.W. (eds.), Getting organized in Vietnam: Moving in and around the socialist state, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 234-270.
International donors have attempted to contribute to, and indeed influence, the overall tenor of socioeconomic and governance-related reforms in Vietnam. They have done so in a number of ways: directly supporting policy research, stablishing forums for debate of developmental issues with government counterparts, funding projects on administrative and judiciary reform and central level capacity building, and providing direct financial and sometimes indirect support for ‘indigenous’ NGOs, primarily development service organizations working as contractors for particular development projects. This paper examines another modality through which donors sought to influence administrative reform over the heady ‘development decade’ of the 1990s – donor support for rural development projects conceived as ‘policy experiments’ (Rondinelli 1983). Though diverse in sectoral focus, these projects commonly attempted to introduce local institutional arrangements promoting greater responsiveness and accountability of local governments to rural communities as a whole, or to particular sub-groups such as smallholder farmers. To do so, local organizations or grassroots groups were typically established as new ways of organizing the rural populace to demand, plan for, access or provide services underpinning rural development and poverty alleviation. “Local development groups” (LDGs) is the name I give to groups comprised of farmers and other end-users of project services (or representatives they choose) that were formed in the process of implementing particular development projects. This paper probes the experience of these development projects and LDGs over approximately the last ten years. It depicts how projects funded by a wide range of donors became an important part of the institutional landscape in many areas of Vietnam, leaving a significant mark on many sectors related to rural development. Five sections follow this introduction. The first examines how changing donor roles interacted with institutional developments to produce an opportunity for projects to influence policy. Section two presents a theoretical framework with which to assess LDGs and the policy experiments in which they were embedded, which section three applies the framework to a sample of 15 donor projects operational over the 1990s in Vietnam. Section four presents more qualitative detail on a few of the higher-impact projects. The final section concludes with implications for donors and the study of local institutional change in Vietnam.
International experience suggests that attempts to rapidly expand formal safety net coverage through cash transfers typically founder in low income countries, which must look to alternative mechanisms to boost social protection. This paper explores this challenge through the case of Vietnam. Despite over a decade of rapid economic growth and poverty reduction, approximately 40% of Vietnam’s population is below or just above the poverty line and is highly vulnerable to community-wide and household-specific shocks. Yet Vietnam’s social protection budget has largely financed formal entitlement programs that are failing to deliver substantial reductions in vulnerability for this broad spectrum of the rural population. This paper outlines the state of social protection in Vietnam and presents an agenda for improving effective coverage rates. It closes by assessing the political and bureaucratic feasibility of social protection reforms in other developing countries.
Fritzen, Scott. 2003. Final impact evaluation synthesis report: The Vietnam National Health Support Project. Ministry of Health and World Bank, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2003. Governance and child rights: A diagnostic framework for donor programming. UNICEF Myanmar and Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 2002. Assessment of the United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the East Asia and Pacific Region. United Nations Staff College, Turin.
Vietnam's economy over the past decade grew at one of the highest rates in teh world. The broadly based nature of this growth sent tubling by over %20 points the proportion of the population falling under an internatlly comparable poverty line. Yet this growth has also genreated increases in the income inequality which, by some measures, threaten to tgive Vietnam one of the highest GIni coefficients in Southeast Asia within 10 years. This paper examines the dynamic interconnections between growth and equity over Vietnam's transition to a market economy. It argues that the sustainability of Vietnam's achievements in reducing poverty is not assures, since greater inequality may undermine both the efficiency with whcih future growth will reduce poverty and make it politiclaly more difficult to pursue pro-poor policies. The paper reviews the current state of Vietnam;s reform agenda, as it affects prospects for achieving equitable growth in the medium term.
Fritzen, Scott, Nachuk S. 2002. Poverty, governance and decentralization in Vietnam. Swedish International Development Agency, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott, Stanely J. 2001. Final Evaluation: The Rural Infrastructure Development Program. UNDP and UNCDF.
Fritzen, Scott. 2001. Institutionalizing participation: Lessons learned and lessons for strengthening Vietnam’s national anti-poverty programs. UNICEF, UNCDF and Canadian Internaitonal Development Agency.
Area-based national programs such as 135 (poorest commune program) have formally adopted decentralization and local participation as key strategies. This accords with the spirit of the Grassroots Democratization Decree. But how will these principles be translated into an improved local planning and implementation process? What constraints will have to be overcome for this to happen? These questions are still very much open, and to date there have been few studies focusing specifically on them. This policy paper analyzes current constraints on, and makes recommendations regarding, the participation of local communities and local government in poverty-related national programs. The study has resulted in four separate papers, of which the current one is the synthesis. Each of these is quite long and goes into considerable descriptive detail; the interested reader is encouraged to contact UNDP Hanoi (Social Development Unit) for copies.
The Government of Viet Nam is currently preparing a Socio-Economic Development Strategy for the years 2001-2010. At the Government’s request, the UNDP has recruited a small team of international and local consultants to provide input into for several sections of the strategy, of which one is “Rural Social Development”. This draft presents the initial analysis of the social development team. The analysis and strategies proposed are, by intention, synthetic: drawn extensively and freely from the best available work by Government agencies and donors. Social development is a broad concept. In this paper it is broken down into four thematic areas: i) poverty reduction and inequality; ii) social safety nets; iii) basic social services; and iv) rural institutions and participation. Each of these areas can be formulated as a broad question for the year 2010. Viet Nam confronts qualitatively different future scenarios depending on how it addresses these questions: a. Will society be polarized into the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’? What can Viet Nam do to accelerate poverty reduction in slow-growing regions and thus mitigate growing socioeconomic inequalities? b. Will social safety nets exist to help provide social stability amidst rapid economic transformation? The degree to which the living standards of disadvantaged are protected will help determine what type of society Viet Nam will have in the year 2010. c. Will social indicators which are high relative to Viet Nam’s economic development continue to propel economic growth and equitable social outcomes? In the absence of greater reform momentum in the social sectors in the coming ten years, Viet Nam’s social indicators will probably still be good “for a low-income country”, but increasing disparities will work against, rather than for, broadly based growth and poverty reduction – quite the opposite of the positive experience to date. d. Will institutions which are capable, democratic, and open to the participation of civil society underpin rural society? The recent democratization decree has generated much interest, both nationally and within the donor community. The question centers on strategic momentum for the process of reform and the degree to which it presages further openings to civil society.
Fritzen, Scott. 2000. Local Government Performance and Decentralization: A Comparative Approach With Application to Social Policy Reform in Vietnam. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University.
Fritzen, Scott. 1999. Fiscal Decentralization, Disparities and Innovation in Viet Nam’s Health Sector, in Litvack, J. and D. Rondinelli. Market reform in Vietnam: Building institutions for development, Westport, CT: Quorum Books, pp. 71-94.
Fritzen, Scott. 1999. Incorporating an ‘area-focus’ into the 2001-2005 Unicef-Socialist Republic of Viet Nam Country Program of Cooperation: Issues and alternatives. UNICEF, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Economic analysis of household access to productive resources and project participation indicators in the Yen Lap Watershed of Northern Vietnam. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Evaluating social indicators: General guidelines and presentation of new analysis from 260 commune data-collection network. Unicef and the Vietnam Committee for the Protection and Care of Children, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Impact evaluation: the Ngoc Lac natural resource management and conservation project. CARE International, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Improving local programs of action for children and the area-focused approach to capacity building: from theory to action. UNICEF, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Logical frameworks for impact monitoring and evaluation for natural resource management interventions. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Fritzen, Scott. 1998. Microfinance in two upland districts: Situation analysis and alternatives for project involvement in the Song Da Social Forestry Project. GTZ and Vietnam Ministry for Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1997. Benefit-cost analysis for development projects: A basic introduction with applications to NGO projects in Viet Nam. Oxfam International, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1997. Benefit-cost analysis of the Hoang Dinh Sea Dyke Reconstruction Project. Oxfam Great Britain, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1997. Economic analysis of a loan guarantee fund intervention in three midland communes: Design, justification, risks. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1997. Rural credit design, management and household decision making. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Vietnam.
Fritzen, Scott. 1997. Smallholder livelihoods in the balance: an evaluation of the Ba Che Natural Resource Management Program. Save the Children Federation, United Kingdom.
Fritzen, Scott. 1996. Situation analysis and capacity development issues for basic health in Vietnam: Issues paper for UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF joint report Capacity Development for Poverty Alleviation. United Nations Development Program, Vietnam.