Cities

Recent Trends in the Availability and Affordability of Housing in New York City

Recent Trends in the Availability and Affordability of Housing in New York City
State of New York City's Housing and Neighborhoods Report, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University, June

Voicu, I. & Gedal, M.
06/01/2006

A broad range of interests - from affordable housing advocates to businesses worried about their workforce - are increasingly concerned that housing affordability in the City is declining rapidly, and that at least one of the causes of that decline is a shortage of housing in the City. In this chapter we use the most recent data from the 2005 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey (HVS) to assess these concerns. First, we examine changes in affordability over the last three years, and do find a striking decrease in the number of units that are affordable to lower-income City residents. Second, we analyze the balance between the demand for, and supply of, housing in the City by looking at the extent to which the housing stock has grown relative to changes in population in recent years. After looking at those trends, we offer a snapshot assessment of the size of the
imbalance between housing demand and supply as of 2005.

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students
Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 17-49. March 29,

Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
03/29/2006

Public schools across the United States are educating an increasing number and diversity of immigrant students. Unfortunately, little is known about their performance relative to native-born students and the extent to which the "nativity gap" might be explained by school and demographic characteristics. This article takes a step toward filling that void using data from New York City where 17 percent of elementary and middle school students are immigrants. We explore disparities in performance between foreign-born and native-born students on reading and math tests in three ways�using levels (unadjusted scores), "value-added" scores (adjusted for prior performance), and an education production function. While unadjusted levels and value-added measures often indicate superior performance among immigrants, disparities are substantially explained by student and school characteristics. Further, while the nativity gap differs for students from different world regions, disparities are considerably diminished in fully specified models. We conclude with implications for urban schools in the United States.

Growing Older in World Cities: New York, Paris, London and Tokyo

Growing Older in World Cities: New York, Paris, London and Tokyo
Edited with Michael Gusmano. Nashville Tn: Vanderbuilt University Press,

Rodwin, V.G.
02/01/2006

Population aging often provokes fears of impending social security deficits, uncontrollable medical expenditures, and transformations in living arrangements, but public policy could also stimulate social innovations. These issues are typically studied at the national level; yet they must be resolved where most people live—in diverse neighborhoods in cities. New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo are the four largest cities among the wealthiest, most developed nations of the world. The essays commissioned for this volume compare what it is like to grow older in these cities with respect to health care, quality of life, housing, and long-term care. The contributors look beyond aggregate national data to highlight the importance of how local authorities implement policies.

The New York Transportation Journal

The New York Transportation Journal
Winter 2006, Vol. 9, No. 2.

Sander, E.G., Publisher & de Cerreño, A.L.C, Sterman, B.P., (eds).
02/01/2006

This issue contains an interview with Urban Designer and Architect Jan Gehl by Janette Sadik-Khan, Senior Vice President of Parson Brinckerhoff and President of Company 39. Also included is an article focusing on developing Nassau County, as well as a piece highlighting current Rudin Center research on "Pedestrian and Bicyclist Standards and Innovations in Large Central Cities."

Inconsistencies in Place Definition: How Different Operational Place Definitions Affect Estimates of Adolescent Smoking and Drinking Risk

Inconsistencies in Place Definition: How Different Operational Place Definitions Affect Estimates of Adolescent Smoking and Drinking Risk
Health and Place, Vol. 13, No. 2.

Brady, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
01/15/2006

We find that estimates of the prevalence of teenage smoking and drinking in "urban," "suburban," and "rural" areas vary with different definitions of these types of geographic units. Given the salience of youth risk behavior to the public debate, we urge researchers to purposefully choose their definitions of geographic areas and to be explicit about those choices.

New York City: IN THE 21st CENTURY

New York City: IN THE 21st CENTURY
Economic Development Journal, Spring 2006, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p7-16, 10p.

Moss, M. L.
01/01/2006

The article reflects on the role of New York City in the 21st century which includes bringing people together with other people to generate the information and products that are then sold around the world. It also presents a brief history of the city in becoming a leading city in the global economy. It also discusses the economic and technological innovations the city had undertaken to become a leading city and the reforms it is planning to implement to maintain its status.

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?
Peabody Journal of Education

Schwartz, A, Kim, D.Y., Stiefel, L. & Zabel, J.
01/01/2006

State and federal accountability reforms are putting considerable pressure on schools to increase the achievement of historically low-performing groups of students and to close test score gaps. In this article, we exploit the differences among the large number of elementary schools in New York City to examine how much schools vary in the efficiency of the education they provide to subgroups. In addition, we examine the extent to which observable school characteristics can account for the variation that exists. We find that New York City elementary schools vary in how well they educate poor students compared to nonpoor students and Asian and White students compared to Black and Hispanic students. The disparities in school efficiency measures between boys and girls are lower than for the other subgroups. There is no conclusive evidence about which school resources and characteristics are associated with more or less efficient education across all subgroups.

Dear Chief Executive Officer: The Perceptions of a Recently Discharged Patient

Dear Chief Executive Officer: The Perceptions of a Recently Discharged Patient
Quality Management of Health Care, Fall 2005, Vol 14, No 4, 219-223.

Kovner, A.R. & C.T. Kovner.
09/01/2005

Details the hospital experience of a health professional who underwent cardiac arterial bypass graft on the said urban medical center. Errors or potential errors that were cited in the way that ancillary staff, nurses and even some physicians failed in or neglected their responsibilities, both medical and humane; System failures observed, largely in the provision of nonclinical, so called hotel services; Possible cause of many of the problems identified.

The New York Transportation Journal

The New York Transportation Journal
Fall 2005, Vol. 9, No. 1.

Sander, E.G., Publisher & de Cerreño, A.L.C, Sterman, B.P., (eds).
09/01/2005

This issue includes an editorial on the Bond Act by NYU Wagner Rudin Center Director, Elliot G. Sander. Also included is an interview with former Mayor of Bogota and Presidential Candidate in Colombia, Enrique Peñalosa, on important transportation elements for a livable urban environment, as well as an article focusing on Smart Transportation.

Following the Money: Using Expenditure Analysis as an Evaluation Tool

Following the Money: Using Expenditure Analysis as an Evaluation Tool
American Journal of Evaluation, Volume 26, Number 2, 150-165.

Brecher, C., Silver, D. & Weitzman, B.C.
06/01/2005

This article describes the nature and utility of fiscal analysis in evaluating complex community interventions. Using New York University's evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative as an example, the authors describe issues arising in defining and operationalizing constructs for fiscal analysis. The approach's utility is demonstrated in the use of interim findings to help redefine the program's goals for resource allocation, to modify its theory of change to include greater emphasis on state-level action, and to emphasize the importance of local public schools as resource centers and intervention targets. The fiscal analysis also provides new insights into the limitations of "preventive" versus "corrective" spending categories and helps make goals for such functional reallocation more realistic. The authors discuss limitations of fiscal analysis due to available data quality, the extent of cooperation needed from public officials to collect relevant data, and the level of expertise needed to interpret the data.

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