Cities

What Do Business Improvement Districts Do for Property Owners?

What Do Business Improvement Districts Do for Property Owners?
Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Taxation, p431-437, 7p

Schwartz, A.E., Ellen, I.G. & Meltzer, R.
01/01/2007

The article discusses the implication of business improvement districts (BIDS) to property owners in the U.S. The scheme first arrived in the country in mid-1970s when urban centers were losing both residents and businesses to suburbs. Such scheme is beneficial to companies because it delivers fair basic services such as security, maintenance, marketing and capital improvements.

Do Good High Schools Produce Good College Students? Early Evidence From New York City

Do Good High Schools Produce Good College Students? Early Evidence From New York City
In Advances in Applied Microeconomics, Volume 14, Improving School Accountability: Check-Ups or Choice, edited by T. J. Gronberg and D.W. Jansen,

Schwartz, A.E & Bel Hadj Amor, H. & Stiefel, L.
06/12/2006

We examine variation in high school and college outcomes across New York City public high schools. Using data on 80,000 students who entered high school in 1998 and following them into the City University of New York, we investigate whether schools that produce successful high school students also produce successful college students. We also explore differences in performance across sex, race, and immigration, and we briefly explore selection issues. Specifically, we estimate student-level regressions with school fixed effects, controlling for student characteristics, to identify better and worse performing schools based on state mandated exams, graduation, and college performance.

Recent Trends in the Availability and Affordability of Housing in New York City

Recent Trends in the Availability and Affordability of Housing in New York City
State of New York City's Housing and Neighborhoods Report, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University, June

Voicu, I. & Gedal, M.
06/01/2006

A broad range of interests - from affordable housing advocates to businesses worried about their workforce - are increasingly concerned that housing affordability in the City is declining rapidly, and that at least one of the causes of that decline is a shortage of housing in the City. In this chapter we use the most recent data from the 2005 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey (HVS) to assess these concerns. First, we examine changes in affordability over the last three years, and do find a striking decrease in the number of units that are affordable to lower-income City residents. Second, we analyze the balance between the demand for, and supply of, housing in the City by looking at the extent to which the housing stock has grown relative to changes in population in recent years. After looking at those trends, we offer a snapshot assessment of the size of the
imbalance between housing demand and supply as of 2005.

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students
Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 17-49. March 29,

Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
03/29/2006

Public schools across the United States are educating an increasing number and diversity of immigrant students. Unfortunately, little is known about their performance relative to native-born students and the extent to which the "nativity gap" might be explained by school and demographic characteristics. This article takes a step toward filling that void using data from New York City where 17 percent of elementary and middle school students are immigrants. We explore disparities in performance between foreign-born and native-born students on reading and math tests in three ways�using levels (unadjusted scores), "value-added" scores (adjusted for prior performance), and an education production function. While unadjusted levels and value-added measures often indicate superior performance among immigrants, disparities are substantially explained by student and school characteristics. Further, while the nativity gap differs for students from different world regions, disparities are considerably diminished in fully specified models. We conclude with implications for urban schools in the United States.

Growing Older in World Cities: New York, Paris, London and Tokyo

Growing Older in World Cities: New York, Paris, London and Tokyo
Edited with Michael Gusmano. Nashville Tn: Vanderbuilt University Press,

Rodwin, V.G.
02/01/2006

Population aging often provokes fears of impending social security deficits, uncontrollable medical expenditures, and transformations in living arrangements, but public policy could also stimulate social innovations. These issues are typically studied at the national level; yet they must be resolved where most people live—in diverse neighborhoods in cities. New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo are the four largest cities among the wealthiest, most developed nations of the world. The essays commissioned for this volume compare what it is like to grow older in these cities with respect to health care, quality of life, housing, and long-term care. The contributors look beyond aggregate national data to highlight the importance of how local authorities implement policies.

The New York Transportation Journal

The New York Transportation Journal
Winter 2006, Vol. 9, No. 2.

Sander, E.G., Publisher & de Cerreño, A.L.C, Sterman, B.P., (eds).
02/01/2006

This issue contains an interview with Urban Designer and Architect Jan Gehl by Janette Sadik-Khan, Senior Vice President of Parson Brinckerhoff and President of Company 39. Also included is an article focusing on developing Nassau County, as well as a piece highlighting current Rudin Center research on "Pedestrian and Bicyclist Standards and Innovations in Large Central Cities."

Inconsistencies in Place Definition: How Different Operational Place Definitions Affect Estimates of Adolescent Smoking and Drinking Risk

Inconsistencies in Place Definition: How Different Operational Place Definitions Affect Estimates of Adolescent Smoking and Drinking Risk
Health and Place, Vol. 13, No. 2.

Brady, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
01/15/2006

We find that estimates of the prevalence of teenage smoking and drinking in "urban," "suburban," and "rural" areas vary with different definitions of these types of geographic units. Given the salience of youth risk behavior to the public debate, we urge researchers to purposefully choose their definitions of geographic areas and to be explicit about those choices.

Efforts to Improve Public Policy and Programs Through Improved "Data Practice": Experiences in Fifteen Distressed American Cities"

Efforts to Improve Public Policy and Programs Through Improved "Data Practice": Experiences in Fifteen Distressed American Cities"
Public Administration Review Vol. 66 No. 3

Weitzman, B.C., Silver, D. & Brazill, C.
01/01/2006

Philanthropies and government agencies interested in children's issues are encouraging localities to improve the process of collecting, linking, and sharing microdata and aggregated summary statistics. An implicit assumption of these efforts is that outcomes will improve as a result of the new approaches. However, there has been little systematic study of these efforts. In this article, we examine efforts to improve data practice in 15 distressed American cities. Interviews conducted in these cities revealed variation in the types of information collected, dissemination, and intended audiences. We identify significant challenges to these efforts, including adequate resources, turf battles, technical problems, access to information sources, inconsistent leadership, and absence of political will. We find that little is known about the impact of these initiatives on decision making. Assumptions that improved data practice will lead to improved policy making have not yet been realized in these cities.

New York City: IN THE 21st CENTURY

New York City: IN THE 21st CENTURY
Economic Development Journal, Spring 2006, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p7-16, 10p.

Moss, M. L.
01/01/2006

The article reflects on the role of New York City in the 21st century which includes bringing people together with other people to generate the information and products that are then sold around the world. It also presents a brief history of the city in becoming a leading city in the global economy. It also discusses the economic and technological innovations the city had undertaken to become a leading city and the reforms it is planning to implement to maintain its status.

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?
Peabody Journal of Education

Schwartz, A, Kim, D.Y., Stiefel, L. & Zabel, J.
01/01/2006

State and federal accountability reforms are putting considerable pressure on schools to increase the achievement of historically low-performing groups of students and to close test score gaps. In this article, we exploit the differences among the large number of elementary schools in New York City to examine how much schools vary in the efficiency of the education they provide to subgroups. In addition, we examine the extent to which observable school characteristics can account for the variation that exists. We find that New York City elementary schools vary in how well they educate poor students compared to nonpoor students and Asian and White students compared to Black and Hispanic students. The disparities in school efficiency measures between boys and girls are lower than for the other subgroups. There is no conclusive evidence about which school resources and characteristics are associated with more or less efficient education across all subgroups.

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