Cities

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment
Urban Studies, Jun98, Vol. 35 Issue 7, p1187-1205, 19p, 8 charts, 3 graphs, 1 map

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1998

This paper synthesises a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It broadens the focus beyond transport and the 'friction of space' and expands the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking 'access' to youth labour market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data relating access to employment outcomes for black youth at the metropolitan level. Access is broadly defined to include traditional measures of geographical distance, as well as measures of social isolation or social access. Metropolitan areas in which the black poor are more spatially isolated are also found to have higher black youth unemployment rates. The second body of evidence relies on the same type of metropolitan measures, combined with individual data on youth living with at least one parent. When individual and family characteristics are controlled for, and white and Hispanic youth are also considered, metropolitan measures of social access exert distinguishable effects upon youth employment-youth living in urban areas in which they have less residential contact with whites or the non-poor are less likely to be employed. The final piece of analysis links the individual records of such youth to tract-level measures of access, both social (neighbourhood composition variables) and geographical (job-access measures). This is accomplished through the creation of a unique data set at the Bureau of the Census. Again, after controlling for individual and family characteristics, the residential conditions of youth affect their employment. Ceteris paribus, youth living in census tracts with fewer employed adults, with fewer whites, and which are further from jobs are less likely to be employed. Results suggest that the overall effects of space on employment outcomes are substantial, explaining 10-40 per cent of the observed racial differences in employment in...

Reinventing the Central City as a Place to Live and Work

Reinventing the Central City as a Place to Live and Work
Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, Issue 2.

Moss, M. L.
01/01/1997

Public policies for urban development have traditionally emphasized investment in physical infrastructure, the development of large-scale commercial facilities, the construction of new housing, and the renewal of existing neighborhoods. Most efforts to revitalize central cities by building new facilities for visitors have focused on suburban commuters and tourists. At the same time, many housing initiatives in central cities have concentrated on low-income communities because outlying suburban areas have attracted traditional middle-income households.

This article argues that emerging demographic and cultural trends - combined with changes in the structure of business organizations and technological advances - provide new opportunities for cities to retain and attract middle-class households. Using gay and lesbian populations as an example, it focuses on the role that nontraditional households can play in urban redevelopment. In light of the rise of nontraditional households and the growth of self-employment and small businesses, cities should adopt policies that make them attractive places in which to live and work.

 

Global Warming, Infrastructure, and Land Use in the Metropolitan New York Area: Prevention and Response

Global Warming, Infrastructure, and Land Use in the Metropolitan New York Area: Prevention and Response
The Baked Apple? Metropolitan New York in the Greenhouse, edited by Douglas Hill. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. Pp. 57-83.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1996

This paper focuses on infrastructure's vulnerability to sea level change associated with global warming. It also addresses the degree to which that infrastructure can be altered to decrease its vulnerability and the vulnerability of the land surrounding it. It centers on the metropolitan New York City area (which includes portions of New Jersey and Connecticut), that is surrounded by an extensive shoreline subject to the risks of global warming.

Management Development for Mid-Level Managers: Results of a Demonstration Project

Management Development for Mid-Level Managers: Results of a Demonstration Project
Hospital and Health Services Administration Winter 1996, Vol. 41 No. 4, pp 485-502.

Kovner, A.R.
01/01/1996

Examines a demonstration program to develop skills and experience for middle managers ar a mid-sized urban hospital in the United States. Background information on the management development program at the New York Downtown Hospital; Participation by middle and senior management; Program curriculum; Program weaknesses, opportunities, threats; Recommendations for replication.

A randomized trial of an education and support program for HIV infected individuals.

A randomized trial of an education and support program for HIV infected individuals.
AIDS 1995, vol. 9, no11, pp. 1271-1278 (37 ref.)

Cleary, P.D., Van Devanter, N., A. Stuart, M. Steilen, Shipton-Levy, R., W. McMullen, T. Rogers, E. Singer, Avorn, J. & J. Pindyck.
11/01/1995

Objectives : To assess the effectiveness of an intervention for providing information and support to HIV-positive donors on changes in their sexual behavior, and to assess which donor characteristics are predictive of behavior change. Design : Subjects were randomly assigned to a structured intervention or community referral group. Follow-up assessments were conducted every 6 months. Setting : New York City, New York, USA. Participants : A cohort of 271 HIV-infected persons who donated blood to the New York Blood Center. Intervention : Donors randomized to the structured intervention program met individually with a nurse for counseling and were offered a six-session support group. The program was designed to provide information, encourage safer sexual behavior and provide support. Main outcome measures : Sexual behavior, psychological distress and psychological help seeking, and immune function. Results : In both groups there was a large decrease over time in reports of unsafe sexual activity. However, more than 30% of participants in both groups reported unsafe sexual activity at the 1-year follow-up visit. Donors randomized to the structured intervention program did not report significantly more behavior change at the 1-year follow-up. Conclusions : Better programs to promote behavior change in seropositive individuals are needed.

Cutback Budgeting: The Long-Term Consequences

Cutback Budgeting: The Long-Term Consequences
Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, Fall 93, Vol. 12 Issue 4, p664-684, 21p

Berne, R. & Stiefel, L.
01/01/1993

Analyzes whether short-term cutbacks made during a fiscal crisis become permanent once fiscal conditions improve. Economic and fiscal history of New York City from the 1970s through the 1980s; Framework for studying the long-term effects of budgetary cutbacks; Methodology for studying the long-term effects of 1976 and 1977 budgetary cutbacks; Effects on dollars, services, teacher characteristics and capital constructions.

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