Cities

Do Economically Integrated Neighborhoods Have Economically Integrated Schools?

Do Economically Integrated Neighborhoods Have Economically Integrated Schools?
Howard Wial, Ha; Wolman and Margery Austin Turner, Eds, Urban and Regional Policy and it's Effects. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, pp 191-205.

Ingrid Ellen, Amy Allen Schwartz, Leanna Stiefel
01/01/2008

The goal of this book, the first in a series, is to bring policymakers, practitioners, and scholars up to speed on the state of knowledge on various aspects of urban and regional policy. What do we know about the effectiveness of select policy approaches, reforms, or experiments on key social and economic problems facing cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas? What can we say about what works, what doesn’t, and why? And what does this knowledge and experience imply for future policy questions?

The authors take a fresh look at several different issues (e.g., economic development, education, land use) and conceptualize how each should be thought of. Once the contributors have presented the essence of what is known, as well as the likely implications, they identify the knowledge gaps that need to be filled for the successful formulation and implementation of urban and regional policy.

Health and Disease in Global Cities: A Neglected Dimension of National Health Policy

Health and Disease in Global Cities: A Neglected Dimension of National Health Policy
Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. Edited by Keil, R. and H. Ali. Oxford University Press,

Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2008

A collection of writings by leading experts and newer researchers on the SARS outbreak and its relation to infectious disease management in progressively global and urban societies.

Pedestrian Environments, Walking Path Choice, and Transfer Penalties: Understanding Land-Use Impacts on Transit Travel

Pedestrian Environments, Walking Path Choice, and Transfer Penalties: Understanding Land-Use Impacts on Transit Travel
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 35, pp. 461-479.

Guo, Z. & Ferreira Jr., J.
01/01/2008

This paper investigates the impact of pedestrian environments on walking behavior, and the related choice of travel path for transit riders. Activity logs from trip surveys combined with transit-route and land-use information are used to fit discrete-choice models of how riders choose among multiple paths to downtown destinations. The work illustrates (1) how the quality of pedestrian environments along transit egress paths affects transfers inside a transit system, and (2) how the impedance of transferring affects egress walking path choices. The use of GIS techniques for path-based spatial analysis is key to understanding the impact of pedestrian environments on walking behavior at the street level. The results show that desirable pedestrian environments encourage transit riders to choose paths that are ‘friendlier', even if they involve more walking after leaving transit. Policy implications for land-use planning and transit service planning are discussed.

Reversal of Fortunes: Low Income Neighborhoods in the 1990s

Reversal of Fortunes: Low Income Neighborhoods in the 1990s
Urban Studies, 45: 845-869.

O'Regan, K. & Ellen, I.G.
01/01/2008

This paper offers new empirical evidence about the prospects of lower-income, US urban neighbourhoods during the 1990s. Using the Neighborhood Change Database, which offers a balanced panel of census tracts with consistent boundaries from 1970 to 2000 for all metropolitan areas in the US, evidence is found of a significant shift in the fortunes of lower-income, urban neighbourhoods during the 1990s. There was a notable increase in the 1990s in the proportion of lower-income and poor neighbourhoods experiencing a gain in economic status. Secondly, in terms of geographical patterns, it is found that this upgrading occurred throughout the country, not just in selected regions or cities. Finally, it is found that the determinants of changes in lower-income, urban neighbourhoods shifted during the 1990s. In contrast to earlier decades, both the share of Blacks and the poverty rate were positively related to subsequent economic gain in these neighbourhoods during the 1990s.

Race Realities in New York City

Race Realities in New York City
The Human Rights Project At the Urban Justice Center

Women of Color Policy Network
12/01/2007

Released in partnership with the Human Rights Project of the Urban Justice Center, this shadow report highlights the persistent discrimination experienced by people of color and immigrants in NYC and brings attention to the failure of the City to meet its full obligations under CERD.

From districts to schools: The distribution of resources across schools in big city school districts

From districts to schools: The distribution of resources across schools in big city school districts
Economics of Education Review Oct 2007, Vol. 26 Issue 5, p532-545, 14p

Rubenstein, R. & Schwartz, A.E., Stiefel, L., Bel Hadj Amor, H.
10/01/2007

While the distribution of resources across school districts is well studied, relatively little attention has been paid to how resources are allocated to individual schools inside those districts. This paper explores the determinants of resource allocation across schools in large districts based on factors that reflect differential school costs or factors that may, in practice, be related to the distribution of resources. Using detailed data on school resources and student and school characteristics in New York City, Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, we find that schools with higher percentages of poor pupils often receive more money and have more teachers per pupil, but the teachers tend to be less educated and less well paid, with a particularly consistent pattern in New York City schools. We conclude with implications for policy and further research.

The Effects of Acculturation on Asthma Burden in a Community Sample of Mexican American Schoolchildren

The Effects of Acculturation on Asthma Burden in a Community Sample of Mexican American Schoolchildren
American Journal of Public Health, Jul 2007, Vol. 97 Issue 7, p1290-1296, 7p.

Martin, M.A., Shalowitz, M.U., Mijanovich, T., Clark-Kauffman, E., Perez, E. & Berry, C.
07/01/2007

We sought to determine whether low acculturation among Mexican American caregivers protects their children against asthma. Methods. Data were obtained from an observational study of urban pediatric asthma. Dependent variables were children's diagnosed asthma and total (diagnosed plus possible) asthma. Regression models were controlled for caregivers' level of acculturation, education, marital status, depression, life stress, and social support and children's insurance. Results. Caregivers' level of acculturation was associated with children's diagnosed asthma (P=.025) and total asthma (P=.078) in bivariate analyses. In multivariate models, protective effects of caregivers' level of acculturation were mediated by the other covariates. Independent predictors of increased diagnosed asthma included caregivers' life stress (odds ratio [OR]= 1.12, P=.005) and children's insurance, both public (OR=4.71, P=.009) and private (OR = 2.87, P=.071). Only caregiver's life stress predicted increased total asthma (OR = 1.21, P=.001). Conclusions. The protective effect of caregivers' level of acculturation on diagnosed and total asthma for Mexican American children was mediated by social factors, especially caregivers' life stress. Among acculturation measures, foreign birth was more predictive of disease status than was language use or years in country. Increased acculturation among immigrant groups does not appear to lead to greater asthma risk.

The Impact of Supportive Housing on Surrounding Neighborhoods

The Impact of Supportive Housing on Surrounding Neighborhoods
2nd Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper, July

Gedal, M. & Been, V., Ellen, I.G., Voicu, I.
07/01/2007

Communities across New York City and around the nation commonly oppose proposals to open supportive housing in their neighborhoods because of fear that the housing will decrease the quality of life in the neighborhood, and lead to reductions in property values. This study aims to give supportive housing providers and local government officials the  objective, credible information they need to guide policy decisions and to respond to opponents' fears and arguments. Using a difference-in-difference regression model to isolate the effect of supportive housing from more general macro and micro market trends and neighborhood variations, this paper examines the impact that almost 14,000 units of supportive housing created in New York City over the past twenty five years have had on their host neighborhoods over time.

In a preliminary analysis, we find little evidence that supportive housing facilities diminish the value of surrounding properties. We find evidence that prices of properties surrounding supportive housing facilities are lower than comparable properties in the same neighborhood prior to the opening of the facility, and that this gap tends to narrow following the opening of a facility. Specifically, the preliminary analysis suggests that modestly-sized supportive housing developments (which are typical in New York City) may have small, positive impacts on neighboring property values, though these positive impacts decline as project size increases. Very large facilities may have negative impacts on the surrounding neighborhood.

 

The New York Transportation Journal

The New York Transportation Journal
Spring 2007, Vol. 10, No. 3.

de Cerreño, A.L.C., Publisher, Sterman, B.P., Editor, Nguyen-Novotny, M.L.H., Assistant Editor.
02/01/2007

In this issue of the Journal, Bruce Schaller, a former Rudin Center Visiting Scholar and Practitioner, shares some astute observations on Mayor Bloomberg's recent announcement on congestion pricing and what it means for New York City. Also included are articles on recent Public-Private partnerships ”The Indiana Toll Road and the Chicago Skyway” written by Joseph Seliga of Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw LLP in Chicago; and the Bay Area TransLink Smart Card, written by Nathan Gilbertson of the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. In addition, Howard Mann of NYMTC provides a timely discussion of the challenges of growth and freight in the region in light of the Rudin Center's upcoming conference on freight, "Delivering the Goods: The Freight Needs of a Growing Population" on June 6, 2007.

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