Economic Development

Taxing the Poor: Income Averaging Reconsidered

Taxing the Poor: Income Averaging Reconsidered
40 Harvard Journal on Legislation 395.

Batchelder, L.
01/01/2003

This Article presents an original empirical analysis demonstrating the disproportionate burden taxation of annual income places upon low-income families. The author proposes two simple income averaging devices to redress this effect: averaging the Earned Income Tax Credit over a two-year period and carrying back the standard deduction and personal and dependent exemptions.

Equity Inequity

Equity Inequity
Annual Editions: American Government New York: McGraw Hill / Dushkin & 2003 and originally appearing in The Nation. 3/26/01; 272(12), pp. 20-22.

Conley, D.
01/01/2002

The article reports on racial inequality. The author says the while African-Americans do earn less than whites, asset gaps remain large even when black and white families at the same income levels are compared. For instance, at the lower end of the economic spectrum (incomes less than $ 15,000 per year), the median African-American family has a net worth of zero, while the equivalent white family's net worth is $10,000. Likewise, among the often-heralded new black middle class, the typical white family earning $40,000 per year enjoys a nest egg of around $80,000; its African-American counterpart has less than half that amount.

Women of Color in New York City: The Challenges of the New Global Economy

Women of Color in New York City: The Challenges of the New Global Economy
First Annual  Status of Women of Color Report.

Stafford, W.W.
03/01/2001

The first Status of Women of Color Report originated out of the need to provide data and research focusing on women of color. By drawing attention to the trends seen in income, unemployment, welfare, and incarceration for women of color in New York city , this report summarizes their achievements and lack of it during the 1990's.

Local Property Taxation in Theory and Practice: Some Reflections

Local Property Taxation in Theory and Practice: Some Reflections
in Wallace E. Oates, editor, Property Taxation and Local Government Finance, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy,

Netzer, D.
01/01/2001

The property tax is considered a most unpopular tax, among both scholars and taxpayers. Yet, recent research and analysis has proposed at least a partial rehabilitation of this tax and its role in the arena of local public finance. Based on a conference sponsored by the Lincoln Institute in January 2000, this book presents a systematic and comprehensive review of the economics of local property taxation and examines its policy implications. The ten papers and paired commentaries are written in a nontechnical form to make the findings available to a broad audience of policy makers and other noneconomists.

Measuring School Efficiency: Lessons from Economics, Implications for Practice

Measuring School Efficiency: Lessons from Economics, Implications for Practice
in Improving Educational Productivity: Lessons from Economics, David Monk, Herbert Wahlberg, and Margaret Wang, ed., pp. 115-137.

Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
01/01/2001

Estimating efficiency and productivity in education involves confronting and addressing a host of difficulties in measuring inputs and outputs, capturing environmental influences, compensating for data scarcity, and determining causality. Nevertheless, recent improvements in data quality and availability and accompanying advances in statistical methods offer the promise of improved measures of school efficiency and the prospect of identifying the determinants of efficiency across schools and school districts and over time. This chapter discusses approaches to measuring K-12 efficiency and the relative merits of each, explaining the complexities of applying these techniques in the real world, and concludes with lessons learned for practitioners.

Risk and Insurance in Transition: Perspectives from Zouping County, China

Risk and Insurance in Transition: Perspectives from Zouping County, China
Chapter 8 in Community and Market in Economic Development, Oxford University Press, edited by Professors Masahiko Aoki and Yujiro Hayami.

Morduch, J. & Sicular, T.
01/01/2001

This book explores the role of community in facilitating the transition to market relationships in economic development, and in controlling and sustaining local public goods such as irrigation, forests, grazing land, and fishing grounds. Previously it was customary to classify economic systems in terms of varying combinations of state and market control of resource allocation. In contrast, this book recognizes community as the third major element of economic systems. This new approach also departs from the conventional view that markets and community norms should be treated as mutually exclusive means of organizing economic activity, instead clarifying the situations in which they may become complementary. Further discussion focuses on the conditions under which management of local commons can, and should, be delegated to local communities rather than subjected to the control of central government.

Tax and the City

Tax and the City
in Re-thinking the Urban Agenda, John Mollenkopf and Ken Emerson, eds., Century Foundation, pp. 63-74.

Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2001

The culmination of a year-long lecture series cosponsored by The Century Foundation and the City University of New York Graduate Center's Center for Urban Research, 'Rethinking the Urban Agenda' takes up the challenge provided by a changing of the guard in New York City government-the election of a new mayor and city council-to outline a new conceptual and political road map for New York City's future and, in many important respects, for the future of urban America.

Thinking About Children in Time.

Thinking About Children in Time.
The Dynamics of Child Poverty in Industrialised Countries. Edited by Bradbury, D. and S. Jenkins, J. Micklewright. Cambridge University Press.

Aber, J.L. & Ellwood, D.T.
01/01/2001

A child poverty rate of ten percent could mean that every tenth child is always poor, or that all children are in poverty for one month in every ten. Knowing where reality lies between these extremes is vital to understanding the problem facing many countries of poverty among the young. This unique study goes beyond the standard analysis of child poverty based on poverty rates at one point in time and documents how much movement into and out of poverty by children there actually is, covering a range of industrialised countries - the USA, UK, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Hungary and Russia. Five main topics are addressed: conceptual and measurement issues associated with a dynamic view of child poverty; cross-national comparisons of child poverty rates and trends; cross-national comparisons of children's movements into and out of poverty; country-specific studies of child poverty dynamics; and the policy implications of taking a dynamic perspective.

Sibling Rivalry in Africa

Sibling Rivalry in Africa
American Economic Review (AEA, Papers and Proceedings) 90 (2), May 2000, 405 - 409.

Morduch, J.
05/01/2000

This article uses data on young teenagers to investigate how sibling composition affects schooling outcomes in South Africa and Tanzania. The results, while not estimated very precisely, establish additional evidence of positive associations between school completion and the number of sisters a child has (controlling for the total number of siblings), but the evidence from South Africa shows that they are not general findings. The estimates are conditional on the given family structure, and of course, family structure may not be fully exogenous to schooling choices.

No Easy Answers

No Easy Answers
Brookings Review, Summer 2000, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p44, 4p.

Ellen, I.G. & Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2000

Discusses the strategies applied to foster economic growth among cities in the United States. Measurement of the impact of economic development programs; Effectiveness of infrastructure investments to boost economic growth; Impact of tax cuts on economy; Development of sports stadiums and arenas.

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