Economics

The economic burden placed on healthcare systems by childhood obesity

The economic burden placed on healthcare systems by childhood obesity
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2012 Feb;12(1):39-45.

Trasande L and Brian Elbel.
02/01/2012

The obesity epidemic has transformed children's healthcare, such that diabetes, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome are phrases more commonly used by child health providers than ever before. This article reviews the economic consequences of this epidemic for healthcare delivery systems, both in the short term when obesity has been associated with increased utilization, and in the long term where increased likelihood of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease is well documented. Large investments through research and prevention are needed and are likely to provide strong returns in cost savings, and would optimally emerge through a cooperative effort between private and government payers alike. 

An Alternative Approach to Addressing Selection into and out of Social Settings: Neighborhood Change and African American Children’s Economic Outcomes

An Alternative Approach to Addressing Selection into and out of Social Settings: Neighborhood Change and African American Children’s Economic Outcomes
Sociological Methods & Research

Sharkey, Patrick.
01/01/2012

Higher Fees Paid to US Physicians Drive Higher Spending for Physician Services Compared to Other Countries

Higher Fees Paid to US Physicians Drive Higher Spending for Physician Services Compared to Other Countries
Health Affairs, 2011. Volume 30 / Issue 09 / September 2011, pp 1647-1656, Published online

Sherry Glied and Miriam Laugesen
09/08/2011

Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation’s health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians’ fees paid by public and private payers for primary care office visits and hip replacements in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compared physicians’ incomes net of practice expenses, differences in financing the cost of medical education, and the relative contribution of payments per physician and of physician supply in the countries’ national spending on physician services. Public and private payers paid somewhat higher fees to US primary care physicians for office visits (27 percent more for public, 70 percent more for private) and much higher fees to orthopedic physicians for hip replacements (70 percent more for public, 120 percent more for private) than public and private payers paid these physicians’ counterparts in other countries. US primary care and orthopedic physicians also earned higher incomes ($186,582 and $442,450, respectively) than their foreign counterparts. We conclude that the higher fees, rather than factors such as higher practice costs, volume of services, or tuition expenses, were the main drivers of higher US spending, particularly in orthopedics.

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

Women of Color Policy Network
08/01/2011

After decades of slow, but steady economic progress, the Great Recession of 2007-2009 erased many of the previous gains made by Blacks in the labor market. Black unemployment rates have consistently climbed since the recession was declared officially over in 2009, peaking at 16.5 percent in 2010. Employed Black workers, in turn, are disproportionately represented in low-wage, low-skill industries and occupations that offer minimal benefits or opportunities for career advancement. This policy brief provides a snapshot of how Black workers are faring in the labor market and poses policy recommendations for building the long-term economic security of Black workers, their families, and communities.

Does Regulatory Supervision Curtail Microfinance Profitability and Outreach?

Does Regulatory Supervision Curtail Microfinance Profitability and Outreach?
World Development 39(6): 949-965, June 2011

Cull, Robert; Asli Demirgüç-Kunt; and Jonathan Morduch
06/01/2011

We combine two datasets to examine whether the scale of an economy’s banking system affects the profitability and outreach of microfinance institutions. We find evidence that competition matters. Greater bank penetration in the overall economy is associated with microbanks pushing toward poorer markets, as reflected in smaller average loans sizes and greater outreach to women. The evidence is particularly strong for microbanks that rely on commercial-funding, use traditional bilateral lending contracts (rather than group lending methods favored by microfinance NGOs), and take deposits. We consider plausible alternative explanations for the correlations, including relationships that run through the nature of the regulatory environment and the structure of the banking environment, but we fail to find strong support for these alternative hypotheses.

State Legislative Roundup for 2011

State Legislative Roundup for 2011

Women of Color Policy Network
06/01/2011

As state sessions draw to a close, this brief examines legislative activity in the first half of 2011 in three main areas—economic security, immigration reform, and reproductive rights—and highlights what state-level legislative wins and losses mean for women of color and their families. Clear trends emerge in this summary: an unprecedented number of attacks on workers, immigrant rights, and women’s reproductive health represent challenges ahead for women of color. At the same time, many setbacks were accompanied with signs of promise, including notable rejections of anti-immigrant measures and legal challenges to legislation restricting women’s access to reproductive health services.

Workplace Flexibility and Women of Color

Workplace Flexibility and Women of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
05/01/2011

Women now make up almost half of all U.S. workers and the majority of mothers with children under 18 are active in the labor market, with even higher rates of participation among single women mothers. Despite these shifts in workplace demographics and the fact that women remain the primary caretakers for family members, women continue to face limited flexible work options. This brief outlines the importance of workplace flexibility in the lives of women of color and describes the institutionalized barriers that limit their access to such arrangements as modified work schedules, time off, supported reentry, and paid leave. The brief also presents policy recommendations for the implementation of workplace flexibility measures and other programs that work to create a supportive working environment for women.

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics
Oxford University Press.

Glied, Sherry and Peter C. Smith
04/07/2011

The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics provides an accessible and authoritative guide to health economics, intended for scholars and students in the field, as well as those in adjacent disciplines including health policy and clinical medicine. The chapters stress the direct impact of health economics reasoning on policy and practice, offering readers an introduction to the potential reach of the discipline. Contributions come from internationally-recognized leaders in health economics and reflect the worldwide reach of the discipline. Authoritative, but non-technical, the chapters place great emphasis on the connections between theory and policy-making, and develop the contributions of health economics to problems arising in a variety of institutional contexts, from primary care to the operations of health insurers. The volume addresses policy concerns relevant to health systems in both developed and developing countries. It takes a broad perspective, with relevance to systems with single or multi-payer health insurance arrangements, and to those relying predominantly on user charges; contributions are also included that focus both on medical care and on non-medical factors that affect health. Each chapter provides a succinct summary of the current state of economic thinking in a given area, as well as the author's unique perspective on issues that remain open to debate. The volume presents a view of health economics as a vibrant and continually advancing field, highlighting ongoing challenges and pointing to new directions for further progress.

A Look at SB 1070 and State-Level Immigration Efforts

A Look at SB 1070 and State-Level Immigration Efforts

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

Arizona's far-reaching anti-immigration bill, SB 1070, sparked a trend of copycat legislation introduced in 30 states. While most efforts were unsuccessful, SB 1070 and copycat laws have severe negative implications for undocumented people and their families, including American children. SB 1070 and similar legislation create barriers for undocumented individuals to report unsafe working conditions and domestic abuse, separate U.S. citizen children from their parents through deportations, and impose undue fiscal burdens on both law enforcement and overall state budgets in economic recession. This brief highlights state policy responses that strengthen economic security through measures that support immigrant families and enrich communities.

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