Education

Evidence-Based Management: Implications for Nonprofit Organizations

Evidence-Based Management: Implications for Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Spring 2014, 24(3): 417–424. doi: 10.1002/nml.21097

Kovner, A. R.
01/09/2014

The article reviews evidence-based management and its implications for practice and teaching. My focus is on strategic decision making in nonprofit organizations. Evidence-based management is a process that includes framing the question, finding evidence, assuring accuracy, applicability, and actionability of evidence until the evidence is the best available.

Helping Without Harming: The Instructor’s Feedback Dilemma in Debriefing—A Case Study

Helping Without Harming: The Instructor’s Feedback Dilemma in Debriefing—A Case Study
Stimulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. October 2013 - Volume 8 - Issue 5 - p 304-316. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e318294854e

Rudolph, J. W., Foldy, E. G. et al.
09/18/2013

Introduction

Simulation instructors often feel caught in a task-versus-relationship dilemma. They must offer clear feedback on learners’ task performance without damaging their relationship with those learners, especially in formative simulation settings. Mastering the skills to resolve this dilemma is crucial for simulation faculty development.

Methods

We conducted a case study of a debriefer stuck in this task-versus-relationship dilemma. Data: The “2-column case” captures debriefing dialogue and instructor’s thoughts and feelings or the “subjective experience.” Analysis: The “learning pathways grid” guides a peer group of faculty in a step-by-step, retrospective analysis of the debriefing. The method uses vivid language to highlight the debriefer’s dilemmas and how to surmount them.

Results

The instructor’s initial approach to managing the task-versus-relationship dilemma included (1) assuming that honest critiques will damage learners, (2) using vague descriptions of learner actions paired with guess-what-I-am-thinking questions, and (3) creating a context she worried would leave learners feeling neither safe nor clear how they could improve. This case study analysis identified things the instructor could do to be more effective including (1) making generous inferences about the learners’ qualities, (2) normalizing the challenges posed by the simulation, (3) assuming there are different understandings of what it means to be a team.

Conclusions

There are key assumptions and ways of interacting that help instructors resolve the task-versus-relationship dilemma. The instructor can then provide honest feedback in a rigorous yet empathic way to help sustain good or improve suboptimal performance in the future.

Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City’s Aspiring Principals Program on Achievement

Training Your Own: The Impact of New York City’s Aspiring Principals Program on Achievement
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(2): 232-253.

Corcoran, S. P., Schwartz, A. E., & Weinstein
09/13/2013

The New York City Leadership Academy represents a unique experiment by a large urban school district to train and develop its own school leaders. Its 14-month Aspiring Principals Program (APP) selects and prepares aspiring principals to lead low-performing schools. This study provides the first systematic evaluation of achievement in APP-staffed schools after 3 or more years. We examine differences between APP principals and those advancing through other routes, the extent to which APP graduates serve and remain in schools, and their relative performance in mathematics and English language arts. On balance, we find that APP principals performed about as well as other new principals. If anything, they narrowed the gap with comparison schools in English language arts but lagged behind in mathematics.

Partisan Priorities: How Issue Ownership Drives and Distorts American Politics

Partisan Priorities: How Issue Ownership Drives and Distorts American Politics
Cambridge University Press.

Egan, Patrick J.
07/22/2013

Americans consistently name Republicans as the party better at handling issues like national security and crime, while they trust Democrats on issues like education and the environment – a phenomenon called “issue ownership.” Partisan Priorities investigates the origins of issue ownership, showing that in fact the parties deliver neither superior performance nor popular policies on the issues they “own.” Rather, Patrick J. Egan finds that Republicans and Democrats simply prioritize their owned issues with lawmaking and government spending when they are in power. Since the parties tend to be particularly ideologically rigid on the issues they own, politicians actually tend to ignore citizens' preferences when crafting policy on these issues. Thus, issue ownership distorts the relationship between citizens' preferences and public policies.

Not Just for Poor Kids: The Impact of Universal Free School Breakfast on Meal Participation and Student Outcomes

Not Just for Poor Kids: The Impact of Universal Free School Breakfast on Meal Participation and Student Outcomes
Economics of Education Review, 36: 88-107

Leos-Urbel, J., Schwartz, A. E., Weinstein, M., & Corcoran, S.
06/18/2013

This paper examines the impact of the implementation of a universal free school breakfast policy on meals program participation, attendance, and academic achievement. In 2003, New York City made school breakfast free for all students regardless of income, while increasing the price of lunch for those ineligible for meal subsidies. Using a difference-indifference estimation strategy, we derive plausibly causal estimates of the policy’s impact by exploiting within and between group variation in school meal pricing before and after the policy change. Our estimates suggest that the policy resulted in small increases in breakfast participation both for students who experienced a decrease in the price of breakfast and for free-lunch eligible students who experienced no price change. The latter suggests that universal provision may alter behavior through mechanisms other than price, highlighting the potential merits of universal provision over targeted services. We find limited evidence of policy impacts on academic outcomes.

Do Small Schools Improve Performance in Large, Urban Districts? Causal Evidence from New York City

Do Small Schools Improve Performance in Large, Urban Districts? Causal Evidence from New York City
Journal of Urban Economics, 77: 27-40

Schwartz, A. E., Stiefel, L., & Wiswall, M.
04/10/2013

We evaluate the effectiveness of small high school reform in the country's largest school district, New York City. Using a rich administrative datasest for multiple cohorts of students and distance between student residence and school to instrument for endogenous school selection, we find substantial heterogeneity in school effects: newly created small schools have positive effects of graduation and some other educational outcomes while older small schools do not. Importantly, we show that ignoring this source of treatment effect heterogeneity by assuming a common small school effect yields a misleading zero effect of small school attendance.

Non-academic factors associated with dropping out of high school: Adolescent problem behaviors

Non-academic factors associated with dropping out of high school: Adolescent problem behaviors
Journal of the Society for Social Work Research. Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013) (pp. 58-75).

Hawkins, R. L., Jaccard, J., & Needle, E.
04/02/2013

This study uses a social capital and collective socialization lens to examine nonacademic factors in middle school that predict students’ failure to complete high school, and focuses on youth who engage in adolescent problem behaviors of smoking cigarettes, sexual intercourse, delinquency, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Our area of interest was the extent to which these variables were predictive of dropping out of high school measured 6 years later and beyond the traditional variables of school performance and school engagement, which are the target of many dropout prevention programs. Analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to follow a nationally representative sample of children from middle school through the end of the high-school years. Results indicate that engaging in regular smoking and sexual activity during middle-school years predict high-school dropout independent of school performance during middle school. Acts of delinquency during middle school in the context of poverty (i.e., mothers’ receipt of welfare was proxy for poverty) are also predictive of high-school dropout. These findings suggest the importance of factors that reach beyond school performance and school engagement as possible targets for dropout prevention programs.

Beyond Black: Diversity among Black Immigrant Students in New York City Public Schools

Beyond Black: Diversity among Black Immigrant Students in New York City Public Schools
Randy Capps and Michael Fix, editors, Young Children of Black Immigrants in America: Changing Flows, Changing Faces. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute: 299-331

Doucet, F., Schwartz, A. E., & Debraggio, E.
12/14/2012

The child population in the United States is rapidly changing and diversifying — in large part because of immigration. Today, nearly one in four US children under the age of 18 is the child of an immigrant. While research has focused on the largest of these groups (Latinos and Asians), far less academic attention has been paid to the changing Black child population, with the children of Black immigrants representing an increasing share of the US Black child population.

To better understand a unique segment of the child population, chapters in this interdisciplinary volume examine the health, well-being, school readiness, and academic achievement of children in Black immigrant families (most with parents from Africa and the Caribbean).

The volume explores the migration and settlement experiences of Black immigrants to the United States, focusing on contextual factors such as family circumstances, parenting behaviors, social supports, and school climate that influence outcomes during early childhood and the elementary and middle-school years.  Many of its findings hold important policy implications for education, health care, child care, early childhood development, immigrant integration, and refugee assistance.

The Effect of Local Violence on Children’s Attention and Impulse Control

The Effect of Local Violence on Children’s Attention and Impulse Control
American Journal of Public Health, December 2012, 102(12), 102:2287-2293. 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300789

Sharkey, P., N. Strayer, A. Papachristos, and C. Raver
12/01/2012

Objectives: We examined whether the burden of violence in a child’s community environment alters the child’s behavior and functioning in the classroom setting. 

Methods: To identify the effects of local violence, we exploited variation in the timing of local homicides, based on data from the Chicago Police Department, relative to the timing of interview assessments conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted with preschoolers in Head Start programs from 2004–2006, the Chicago School Readiness Project. We compared children’s scores when exposed to recent local violence with scores when no recent violence had occurred to identify causal effects.

Results: When children were assessed within a week of a homicide that occurred near their home, they exhibited lower levels of attention and impulse control and lower preacademic skills. The analysis showed strong positive effects of local violence on parental distress, providing suggestive evidence that parental responses may be a likely pathway by which local violence affects young children.

Conclusions: Exposure to homicide generates acute psychological distress among caregivers and impairs children’s self-regulatory behavior and cognitive functioning.

Learn and Let Learn: Supporting Learning Communities for Innovation and Impact

Learn and Let Learn: Supporting Learning Communities for Innovation and Impact
RCLA and Grantmakers for Effective Organizations Guide; November 2012

Research Center for Leadership in Action and Scaling What Works
11/06/2012

This guide from RCLA and Grantmakers for Effective Organizations explores the power of learning communities to build connections and knowledge to increase organizations’ community impact. Based on six case studies, the guide explains ways grantmakers can strategically support these efforts as well as key elements for designing learning communities, executing for success and extending the learning.

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