Education

Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender

Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 42, No. 3, 350-372.

Foldy, E.G.
09/01/2006

Recent scholarship has shown that, despite the broad representation of women in the workplace, gender inequities in organizations remain widespread. Because gender schema ”embedded ways of thinking about men and women” contribute to this phenomenon, addressing such mental models should be a part of gender equity initiatives. This article provides data that suggest that some individuals hold within themselves quite contradictory schemas of men and of women. It then illustrates how individuals can use these internal inconsistencies to push through superficial understandings of gender to more complex ones. By facilitating this learning process in training and other kinds of organizational events, change agents can strengthen organizational efforts to achieve gender equity.

Do Good High Schools Produce Good College Students? Early Evidence From New York City

Do Good High Schools Produce Good College Students? Early Evidence From New York City
In Advances in Applied Microeconomics, Volume 14, Improving School Accountability: Check-Ups or Choice, edited by T. J. Gronberg and D.W. Jansen,

Schwartz, A.E & Bel Hadj Amor, H. & Stiefel, L.
06/12/2006

We examine variation in high school and college outcomes across New York City public high schools. Using data on 80,000 students who entered high school in 1998 and following them into the City University of New York, we investigate whether schools that produce successful high school students also produce successful college students. We also explore differences in performance across sex, race, and immigration, and we briefly explore selection issues. Specifically, we estimate student-level regressions with school fixed effects, controlling for student characteristics, to identify better and worse performing schools based on state mandated exams, graduation, and college performance.

Predicting Cognitive Control From Preschool to Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

Predicting Cognitive Control From Preschool to Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Psychological Science, June 2006, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p478-484, 7p.

Eigsti, I., Zayas, V., Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., Ayduk. O., Dadlani, M.B., Davidson, M.C., Aber, J.L. & Casey, B.J.
06/01/2006

In this longitudinal study, the proportion of time preschoolers directed their attention away from rewarding stimuli during a delay-of-gratification task was positively associated with efficiency (greater speed without reduced accuracy) at responding to targets in a go/no-go task more than 10 years later. The overall findings suggest that preschoolers' ability to effectively direct their attention away from tempting aspects of the rewards in a delay-of-gratification task may be a developmental precursor for the ability to perform inhibitory tasks such as the go/no-go task years later. Because performance on the go/no-go task has previously been characterized as involving activation of fronto-striatal regions, the present findings also suggest that performance in the delay-of-gratification task may serve as an early marker of individual differences in the functional integrity of this circuitry.

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students

Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students
Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 17-49. March 29,

Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
03/29/2006

Public schools across the United States are educating an increasing number and diversity of immigrant students. Unfortunately, little is known about their performance relative to native-born students and the extent to which the "nativity gap" might be explained by school and demographic characteristics. This article takes a step toward filling that void using data from New York City where 17 percent of elementary and middle school students are immigrants. We explore disparities in performance between foreign-born and native-born students on reading and math tests in three ways�using levels (unadjusted scores), "value-added" scores (adjusted for prior performance), and an education production function. While unadjusted levels and value-added measures often indicate superior performance among immigrants, disparities are substantially explained by student and school characteristics. Further, while the nativity gap differs for students from different world regions, disparities are considerably diminished in fully specified models. We conclude with implications for urban schools in the United States.

Training Psychiatrists for Public Sector Care: A Survey of Residency Directors on Current Priorities and Preparation

Training Psychiatrists for Public Sector Care: A Survey of Residency Directors on Current Priorities and Preparation
Psychiatric Services. 57:238-243, February

Yedidia, M.J., Gillespie, C.C. & Berstein, C.A.
02/01/2006

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed how resident psychiatrists are being prepared to deliver effective public-sector care.

METHODS: Ten leaders in psychiatric education and practice were interviewed about which tasks they consider to be essential for effective public-sector care. The leaders identified 16 tasks. Directors of all general psychiatry residency programs in the United States were then surveyed to determine how they rate the importance of these tasks for delivery of care and how their training program prepares residents to perform each task.

RESULTS: A total of 114 of 150 residency directors (76 percent) responded to the survey. Factor analysis divided 14 of the tasks into three categories characterized by the extent to which their performance requires integration of services: within the mental health system (for example, lead a multidisciplinary team), across social service systems (for example, interact with staff of supportive housing programs), and across institutions with different missions (for example, distinguish behavioral problems from underlying psychiatric disorders among prisoners). Preparation for tasks that involved integration of services across institutions was rated as least important, was least likely to be required, and was covered by less intensive teaching modalities. Tasks entailing integration within the mental health system were rated as most important, preparation was most likely to be required, and they were covered most intensively. Midway between these two categories, but significantly different from each, were tasks relying on integration across social service systems.

CONCLUSIONS: Tasks that involved integrating services across institutions with different missions were consistently downplayed in training. Yet the importance of such tasks is underscored by the assessments of the psychiatric leaders who were interviewed, the high valuation placed on this type of integration by a substantial subset of training directors, and the extent of mental illness among populations who are institutionalized in nonpsychiatric settings.

Effects of Anti-Poverty and Employment Policies on Middle-Childhood School Performance: Do They Vary by Race/Ethnicity, and If So, Why?

Effects of Anti-Poverty and Employment Policies on Middle-Childhood School Performance: Do They Vary by Race/Ethnicity, and If So, Why?
In A.C. Huston & M. Ripke (Eds.), Middle childhood: Contexts of development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Yoshikawa, H., Morris, P.A., Gennetian, L.A., Roy, A.L., Gassman-Pines, A. & Godfrey, E.B..
01/01/2006

This chapter considers whether effects of antipoverty policy on children's school performance differ by ethnicity, and if so, why. We explore several hypotheses: those that derive from human capital theory, theories about family structure and family process, and person-environment fit theory. A major finding is that, in addition to the role of human capital, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that person-environment fit matters. That is, the fit between policy contexts and personal values and goals, such as motivation to pursue one's own education, appears to play a role in explaining differences by race and ethnicity in effects of welfare and employment policies on children.

Neighborhoods and Schools: Contexts and Consequences for the Mental Health and Risk Behaviors of Children and Youth

Neighborhoods and Schools: Contexts and Consequences for the Mental Health and Risk Behaviors of Children and Youth
In L. Balter and C. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues (2nd ed.)

Gershoff, E.T. & Aber, J.L.
01/01/2006

This second edition of Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues reflects the increasingly sophisticated and varied research methods used to examine the highly complex interactions contributing to children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. Those chapters that appeared in the previous edition have been thoroughly updated and new chapters by outstanding researchers have been introduced. In addition, there is an entirely new section on Adolescence and thorough coverage of salient Ecological Influences, which make this second edition a truly comprehensive resource on the important issues in child psychology. The volume is divided into five sections - Infancy, Preschool Years, Childhood, Adolescence, and Ecological Influences - which: * Describe the nature of development and individual variations in developmental trajectories across multiple domains * Identify the processes and mechanisms underlying developmental and contextual change * Explore the varied contexts in which development unfolds, including family, school, neighborhood, and culture * Apply cutting-edge research designs, methodologies, and analytic approaches to models of development The volume provides an invaluable and practical resource for students and instructors on a wide variety of courses, and for researchers and professionals working in the field of child development.

Parental Educational Investment and Children's Academic Risk

Parental Educational Investment and Children's Academic Risk
Journal of Human Resources, Fall 2006, Vol. 41 Issue 4, p722-737, 16p.

Conley, D. & Glauber, R.
01/01/2006

This study uses exogenous variation in sibling sex composition to estimate the causal effect of sibship size on boys' probabilities of private school attendance and grade retention. Using the 1990 U.S. Census, we find that for second-born boys, increased sibship size reduces the likelihood of private school attendance by six percentage points and increases grade retention by almost one percentage point. Sibship size has no effect for first-born boys. Instrumental variable estimates are larger consistent across racial groups, although the standard error are larger for nonwhites as they have smaller sample sizes and this renders them insignificant at traditional alpha levels.

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?

School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?
Peabody Journal of Education

Schwartz, A, Kim, D.Y., Stiefel, L. & Zabel, J.
01/01/2006

State and federal accountability reforms are putting considerable pressure on schools to increase the achievement of historically low-performing groups of students and to close test score gaps. In this article, we exploit the differences among the large number of elementary schools in New York City to examine how much schools vary in the efficiency of the education they provide to subgroups. In addition, we examine the extent to which observable school characteristics can account for the variation that exists. We find that New York City elementary schools vary in how well they educate poor students compared to nonpoor students and Asian and White students compared to Black and Hispanic students. The disparities in school efficiency measures between boys and girls are lower than for the other subgroups. There is no conclusive evidence about which school resources and characteristics are associated with more or less efficient education across all subgroups.

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006; 17.2: 9-19.

Kaplan S.A., Calman, N.S., Golub M., Davis J.H. & Billings, J.
01/01/2006

Although many public health initiatives have been implemented through collaborations with faith-based institutions, little is known about best practices for developing such programs. Using a community-based participatory approach, this case study examines the implementation of an initiative in the Bronx, New York, that is designed to educate community members about health promotion and disease management and to mobilize church members to seek equal access to health care services. The study used qualitative methods, including the collaborative development of a logic model for the initiative, focus groups, interviews, analysis of program reports, and participant observation. The paper examines three key aspects of the initiative’s implementation: (1) the engagement of the church leadership; (2) the use of church structures as venues for education and intervention; and (3) changes in church policies. Key findings include the importance of pre-existing relationships within the community and the prominent agenda-setting role played by key pastors, and the strength of the Coalition’s dual focus on health behaviors and health disparities. Given the churches’ demonstrated ability to pull people together, to motivate and to inspire, there is great potential for faith-based interventions, and models developed through such interventions, to address health disparities.

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