Education

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006; 17.2: 9-19.

Kaplan S.A., Calman, N.S., Golub M., Davis J.H. & Billings, J.
01/01/2006

Although many public health initiatives have been implemented through collaborations with faith-based institutions, little is known about best practices for developing such programs. Using a community-based participatory approach, this case study examines the implementation of an initiative in the Bronx, New York, that is designed to educate community members about health promotion and disease management and to mobilize church members to seek equal access to health care services. The study used qualitative methods, including the collaborative development of a logic model for the initiative, focus groups, interviews, analysis of program reports, and participant observation. The paper examines three key aspects of the initiative’s implementation: (1) the engagement of the church leadership; (2) the use of church structures as venues for education and intervention; and (3) changes in church policies. Key findings include the importance of pre-existing relationships within the community and the prominent agenda-setting role played by key pastors, and the strength of the Coalition’s dual focus on health behaviors and health disparities. Given the churches’ demonstrated ability to pull people together, to motivate and to inspire, there is great potential for faith-based interventions, and models developed through such interventions, to address health disparities.

Measuring School Performance and Efficiency: Implications for Practice and Research

Measuring School Performance and Efficiency: Implications for Practice and Research
Eye on Education: Larchmont, NY,

Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R., Schwartz, A.E. & Zabel, J., eds.
05/30/2005

School performance and efficiency measurement have taken center stage in much of the debate and research in education policy since at least the mid-1990s. Despite the clear theoretical and practical importance of understanding the ways in which school performance can be measured, only limited research exists on alternative ways to measure how well schools are educating their students, delivering what parents want, and using resources efficiently. In this volume, the authors of eight chapters address the measurement of school performance, an issue that lies in between the study of technical characteristics of student assessments, on the one hand, and the effectiveness of accountability systems that use those assessments, on the other. Although psychometricians focus on the reliability, validity, and fairness of individual student assessments, and social scientists address whether state and local accountability systems that use those student assessments are effective ways to influence school performance, the authors of this volume consider the pros and cons of alternative measurements of school performance and efficiency, per se.

Facing the Futures: Building Robust Nonprofits in the Pittsburgh Region

Facing the Futures: Building Robust Nonprofits in the Pittsburgh Region
The Forbes Funds,

Light, P.C.
05/01/2005

The Pittsburgh region faces tough questions as it faces the futures ahead. Will it, for example, find a way to stop its young people from leaving or slip further into the profile of a “weak market” city, with all that means for the erosion of jobs and talent? Will it close the gaps between its citizens on education, health, earnings, and poverty, or will it continue to be listed as a city of disadvantage for African Americans? And will it play an aggressive role in helping Pennsylvania rebuild its aging economy or eventually eclipse North Dakota and West Virginia as the state with the slowest growing economy in the nation?

No one knows yet just how these futures will play out. It could be that the Pittsburgh area is on the cusp of a great revival as it continues to make the turn from an industrial-age economy to an “eds and meds” future. It could also be that the area has reached the maximum range of its geographic spread, thereby signaling an end to the hollowing-out of its inner city. It could even be that the area’s young people are starting to see the vibrant opportunities embedded in urban renewal and a low-cost of living, not to mention an expanding arts community, access to some of the nation’s greatest educational institutions, and the chance to revel in the return of the Pittsburgh Steelers and the yellow towel industry that goes with it.

Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry

Integrating Rigor and Relevance in Public Administration Scholarship: The Contribution of Narrative Inquiry
Public Administration Review, Vol. 65, May/June, No.3, pp. 286.

Dodge, J., Ospina, S. & Foldy, E.G.
05/01/2005

A traditional view of scholarly quality defines rigor as the application of method and assumes an implicit connection with relevance. But as an applied field, public administration requires explicit attention to both rigor and relevance. Interpretive scholars' notions of rigor demand an explicit inclusion of relevance as an integral aspect of quality. As one form of interpretive research, narrative inquiry illuminates how this can be done. Appreciating this contribution requires a deeper knowledge of the logic of narrative inquiry, an acknowledgement of the diversity of narrative approaches, and attention to the implications for judging its quality. We use our story about community-based leadership research to develop and illustrate this argument.

School Finance Court Cases and Disparate Racial Impact: The Contribution of Statistical Analysis in New York

School Finance Court Cases and Disparate Racial Impact: The Contribution of Statistical Analysis in New York
Education and Urban Society, February 2005, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 151-173.

Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E., Berne, R. & Chellman, C.
02/01/2005

Although analyses of state school finance systems rarely focus on the distribution of funds to students of different races, the advent of racial discrimination as an issue in school finance court cases may change that situation. In this article, we describe the background, analyses, and results of plaintiffs' testimony regarding racial discrimination in Campaign for Fiscal Equity Inc. v. State of New York. Plaintiffs employed multiple regression and public finance literature to show that New York State's school finance system had a disparate racial impact on New York City students. We review the legal basis for disparate racial impact claims, with particular emphasis on the role of quantitative statistical work, and then describe the model we developed and estimated for the court case. Finally, we discuss the defendants' rebuttal, the Court's decision, and conclude with observations about the role of analysis in judicial decision making in school finance.

Healthy Relationships: A Guide to Forming Partnerships between Health Care Providers and Adult Education Programs

Healthy Relationships: A Guide to Forming Partnerships between Health Care Providers and Adult Education Programs
Literacy Assistance Center.

Kaplan, S.A.
01/01/2005

Simply stated, health literacy is the ability to obtain, understand, and effectively use health-related information. In a recent report entitled "Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion," the Institute of Medicine estimated that 90 million adults may lack the needed literacy skills to effectively use the U.S. health care system. Extrapolating from the National Adult Literacy Survey, approximately 36 percent of New York City adults would not be able to identify the name of a hospital in a short article; an additional 27 percent would not be able to fill out a standard health insurance form. Health care providers and patients typically do not identify low health literacy as a major issue, but both groups are well aware of its consequences. Health care professionals know they need improved communication with their patients so that they can better understand patient concerns and priorities, engage them as active partners in their care, improve their grasp of protocols for care management and the need for preventive care and screening, and ensure that they know when and where to seek care and how to navigate the health care system. Conversely, adults with low literacy skills often feel intimidated by the complexity of the health care system, by the forms and instructions, and by medical terminology. To avoid appearing ignorant, they may be hesitant to ask questions or express concerns, thereby compounding the problem. All of these difficulties are exacerbated when patients do not speak English well and are unfamiliar with the U.S. health care system.

Leadership Development for Global Health

Leadership Development for Global Health
in Global Health Leadership and Management, Forege, WH; Daulaire, N.; Black, R.E.; Pearson, C.E., Eds. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco,

Boufford, J.I.
01/01/2005

Written by an international panel of distinguished global health experts, this book distills valuable lessons from a wide variety of successful health programs that have been implemented around the world. "Global Health Leadership and Management gives practical suggestions for enhancing and developing the essential skills of leadership, management, communication, and project planning for health care leaders. The book will assist health leaders to work well within their communities and effectively plan, direct, implement, and evaluate effective programs and activities. "Global Health Leadership and Management outlines and describes such core competencies as Identifying challenges and developing and managing policy Developing strategies, pathways, and solutions Creating networks and partnerships and planning for change Learning from experience to build a generation of leaders Leading and managing teams by recognizing and celebrating success

Practice, Practice, Practice: The Education and Training of Policy Analysts at NYU Wagner

Practice, Practice, Practice: The Education and Training of Policy Analysts at NYU Wagner
in Geva-May, Iris (ed.), A Clinical Approach to Policy Analysis.

Smith, D.C.
01/01/2005

The world of policy represents the confluence of a number of intellectual strands in which the clinician brings science together with intuition, and uses his or her experience to interpret the evidence and make recommendations for treatment. This important volume brings together leading scholars to explore the "how" of thinking about policy--the questions, values, judgments and experience the analyst brings to bear.

Immigrants and the Distribution of Resources within an Urban School District

Immigrants and the Distribution of Resources within an Urban School District
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Winter 2004, Vol. 26, No. 4. pp- 303-328.

Stiefel, L. & Schwartz, A.E.
12/01/2004

In New York City, where almost 14 percent of elementary school pupils are foreign-born and roughly half of these are "recent immigrants," the impact of immigrant students on school resources may be important. While immigrant advocates worry about inequitable treatment of immigrant students, others worry that immigrants drain resources from native-born students. In this article, we explore the variation in school resources and the relationship to the representation of immigrant students. To what extent are variations in school resources explained by the presence of immigrants per se rather than by differences in student educational needs, such as poverty or language skills, or differences in other characteristics, such as race? Our results indicate that, while schools resources decrease with the representation of immigrants, this relationship largely reflects differences in the educational needs of immigrant students. Although analyses that link resources to the representation of foreign-born students in 12 geographic regions of origin find some disparities, these are again largely driven by differences in educational need. Finally, we find that some resources increase over time when there are large increases in the percentage of immigrants in a school, but these results are less precisely estimated. Thus, elementary schools appear not to be biased either against or for immigrants per se, although differences in the needs of particular groups of immigrant students may lead to more (or fewer) school resources.

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