Education

Learning from Diversity: A Theoretical Exploration

Learning from Diversity: A Theoretical Exploration
Public Administration Review, Vol. 64 Issue 5 Page 529, September

Foldy, E.G.
01/01/2004

Public-sector organizations tend to be more racially and ethnically diverse than private-sector organizations, leading to the challenge of enhancing heterogeneous work group effectiveness. Recent work suggests that a group's "diversity perspective," or set of beliefs about the role of cultural diversity, moderates diverse group performance. One perspective, the integration and learning perspective, argues that heterogeneous groups function better when they believe that cultural identities can be tapped as sources of new ideas and experiences about work. However, simply holding the integration and learning perspective may not be sufficient. Research on general group learning has shown that it requires particular behaviors and cognitive frames. This article integrates recent work on diversity perspectives with long-standing research on team learning to propose a conceptual model of learning in culturally diverse groups. It suggests that both the integration and learning perspective and more generic learning frames and skills must be present.

The Impact of School Reform on Student Performance: Evidence from the New York Network for School Renewal Project

The Impact of School Reform on Student Performance: Evidence from the New York Network for School Renewal Project
Journal of Human Resources, spring 2004, pages 500-522.

Schwartz, A.E., Stiefel, L. & Kim, D.Y.
01/01/2004

This paper evaluates the impact of the New York Networks for School Renewal Project, a whole school reform initiated by the Annenberg Foundation as part of a nationwide reform strategy. It uses data on students in randomly chosen control schools to estimate impacts on student achievement, using an intent-to-treat design. After controlling for student demographic, mobility, and school characteristics, the authors find positive impacts for students attending reform schools in the fourth Grade, mixed evidence for fifth Grade, and slight to no evidence for sixth Grade. On average, there is a small positive impact. The paper illustrates how relatively inexpensive administrative data can be used to evaluate education reforms.

The Impact of Social Networks and Social /Political Group Participation on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

The Impact of Social Networks and Social /Political Group Participation on HIV Risk Behaviors Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

Wilson, P.A., Yoshikawa, H. & Peterson, J.L.
01/01/2004

As we enter the third decade of the AIDS epidemic, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death for Black U.S. citizens between the ages of 25-44. Black MSM have the highest incidence of AIDS in the U.S. Research is needed on the individual and contextual factors that place these men at risk. This study asks: 1) What are the profiles of social network and social/political group involvement for Black MSM? 2) Do levels of peer norms, AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and AIDS ethnocentrism differ for Black MSM according to their social networks and social activity? 3) Does HIV-risk differ for Black MSM according to their social involvement? METHODS: The sample consisted of 318 Black MSM. The average age was 31 years old, and 88% of the participants were single. 33% of the sample reported engaging in sexual behavior with both men and women. Measures included age, education level, make-up of social networks (race, sexual orientation), participation in social/political groups of Black gay, White gay and heterosexual types, levels of condom efficacy, peer norms, AIDS knowledge and AIDS ethnocentrism and number of instances of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past 6 months. Data were analyzed using cluster analysis, regression analysis and ANOVA. RESULTS: Men who were active in social/political groups were less likely to engage in UAI than men who were not active. This effect was mediated by higher condom efficacy and lower AIDS ethnocentrism. The study also showed that men with largely Black and gay networks reported higher UAI than men with White gay social networks. CONCLUSION: Results show that different social patterns among Black MSM can lead to different outcomes regarding HIV-risk. These findings will inform AIDS prevention efforts for Black MSM, and promote use of a framework that incorporates both individual and contextual factors in understanding HIV-risk.

The Organization of Schooling and Adolescent Development

The Organization of Schooling and Adolescent Development
In K. Maton, C. Schellenbach, B. Leadbeater, & A. Solarz (Eds.), Investing in children, youth, families, and communities: Strengths-based research and policy (pp. 233-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association,

Seidman, E., Aber, J.L. & French, S.E.
01/01/2004

Investing in Children, Youth, Families, and Communities takes a theoretically exciting and socially critical view of human development and the power of context to shape positive outcomes. Co-editors Kenneth I. Maton, Cynthia J. Schellenbach, Bonnie J. Leadbeater, and Andrea L. Solarz bring together leading social scientists and policy experts to discuss what helps or hinders healthy development.

A transformative theme, from deficits to strengths, emerges in this book, as it surveys the mounting evidence that programs that shore up resilience can and do work. Empirically rich chapters show how children, youth, families, and communities can be vital resources in countering the challenges posed by violence, abuse, neglect, and other obstacles to development. It provides concrete examples of programs that recognize, strengthen, and marshal the abilities of individuals and groups traditionally assumed to be deficient or in need of "fixing."

Uniquely, this book also extends the scientific findings to real-world program and policy implications. Each chapter is co-authored by scholars and policy experts with complementary strengths, bringing together expertise in the psychosocial aspects of an issue and expertise in social policy.

 

The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: A School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Program

The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: A School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Program
In J.E. Zins, R.P. Weissberg, M.C. Wang, & H.J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp.151-169). New York, NY: Teachers College Press,

Brown, J.L., Roderick, T., Lantieri, L. & Aber, J.L.
01/01/2004

The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is one of the oldest and largest school-based conflict resolution programs in the United States. Beginning in 1994, we planned and implemented a rigorous scientific evaluation of the RCCP, involving over 350 teachers and 11,000 children from 15 public elementary schools in New York City. In this chapter, we describe the RCCP, explain the rationale for and design of the study, summarize the major results related to the program's impact on children's trajectories of social and emotional learning (SEL) and academic achievement, and discuss the implications of these findings for research, practice, and policy.

The Role of Cities in Providing Housing Assistance: A New York Perspective

The Role of Cities in Providing Housing Assistance: A New York Perspective
In Amy Ellen Schwartz, ed., City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer. Northampton, Mass: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.,

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Voicu, I.
01/01/2004

In a festschrift to Netzer-a public finance economist well known for his research on state and local taxation, urban public services, and nonprofit organizations-eight chapters apply microeconomics to problems facing urban areas and use statistical analysis to gain insight into practical solutions. The essays look at alternative methods of financing urban government, such as a land value tax and the impact of sales and income taxes on property taxation; at government expenditures, including housing subsidies; and at subsidies to nonprofit arts groups as well as the role of the nonprofit sector in providing K-12 education. Of interest to the fields of public finance, urban economics, and public administration.

Virtual District, Real Improvement: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Chancellor's District, 1996-2003

Virtual District, Real Improvement: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Chancellor's District, 1996-2003
New York University, Institute for Education and Social Policy,

Phenix, D., Siegel, D., Zaltsman, A. & Fruchter, N.
01/01/2004

This study is a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of the Chancellor’s District, a virtual district created to improve New York City’s most poorly performing public schools. New York City Schools Chancellor Rudy Crew initiated the district in 1996 to remove state-identified low-performing schools from their sub-district authorities, and to accelerate their improvement by imposing a centralized management structure, a uniform curriculum, and intensive professional development. The initiative was terminated in 2003 when a new, Mayoral-controlled regime restructured the city school system.

What’s Happened to the Price of College? Quality Adjusted Net Price Indices for Four Year Colleges

What’s Happened to the Price of College? Quality Adjusted Net Price Indices for Four Year Colleges
Journal of Human Resources. 2004, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 723-45.

Schwartz, A.E. & Scafidi, B.P.
01/01/2004

In this paper we estimate hedonic models of the (consumer) price of college to construct quality-adjusted net price indexes for U.S. four-year colleges, where the net price of college is defined as tuition and fees minus financial aid. For academic years 1990-91 to 1994-95, we find adjusting for financial aid leads to a 22 percent decline in the estimated price index for all four-year colleges, while quality adjusting the results leads to a further, albeit smaller, decline. Nevertheless, public comprehensive colleges, perhaps an important gateway to college for students from low-income backgrounds, experienced the largest net price increases.

Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance

Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance
Economics of Education Review, Volume 22, Number 1, pages 60-78.

Stiefel, L. & Iatarola, P.
02/01/2003

This paper presents empirical evidence on input and output equity of expenditures, teacher resources, and performance across 840 elementary and middle schools in New York City. Historically, researchers have studied interdistrict distributions, but given the large numbers of pupils and schools within many urban districts, it is important to learn about intradistrict distributions as well. The empirical work is built on a framework of horizontal, vertical, and equal opportunity equity. The results show that the horizontal equity distributions are more disparate than what would be expected relative to results of other studies, vertical equity is lacking, especially in elementary schools, and equality of opportunity is at best neutral but more often absent. Middle schools exhibit more equity than elementary schools. The paper is one of the first to measure output equity, using levels and changes in test scores to do so.

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