Environment

Resilient Urban Infrastructure for Adapting to Environmental Disruptions

Resilient Urban Infrastructure for Adapting to Environmental Disruptions
R. Zimmerman (2016) “Resilient Urban Infrastructure for Adapting to Environmental Disruptions,” Chapter 32 in Handbook on Urbanization and Global Environmental Change, edited by K. C. Seto, W. D. Solecki, and C. A. Griffith, London, UK: Routledge, pp. 488-512. ISBN 978-0-415-73226-0.

R. Zimmerman
04/09/2016

Nonprofits as “Schools of Democracy”: A Comparative Case Study of Two Environmental Organizations

Nonprofits as “Schools of Democracy”: A Comparative Case Study of Two Environmental Organizations
2016. Published online before print May 4, 2015, doi: 10.1177/0899764015584063. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, June 2016 45(3): 478-499.

Dodge, J. and S. M. Ospina
10/26/2015

This article presents a comparative case study of two nonprofit organizations that do community organizing in the environmental field and asks how do nonprofits school citizens in democracy? Although the literature suggests the importance of social capital, a practice approach surfaces important political dimensions that have not been sufficiently explored. We find that distinct organizational practices create contexts for participants to exercise specific ways of being and doing—called “subject positions”—vis-à-vis the state and their political community. These practices support member participation by serving to construct “citizens”—rather than customers or clients—who develop skills in critical thinking and who exercise agency in the organization and the policy field they seek to influence. These practices represent key mechanisms for schooling citizens in democracy in these nonprofit organizations and link participation in the organization with broader political participation. We discuss implications for theory and practice.

Understanding leadership in a world of shared problems: Advancing network governance in large landscape conservation

Understanding leadership in a world of shared problems: Advancing network governance in large landscape conservation
2016. Special issue on "Network Governance in Large Landscape Conservation" in Frontiers in Ecology and Environment.

Imperial, M., S. Ospina, E. Johnson, R. O'Leary, P. Williams, S. Johnson, & J. Thomeson
10/26/2015

Conservation of large landscapes requires three interconnected types of leadership: collaborative leadership, in which network members share leadership functions at different points in time; distributive leadership, in which network processes provide local opportunities for members to act proactively for the benefit of the network; and architectural leadership, in which the structure of the network is intentionally designed to allow network processes to occur. In network governance, each leadership approach is necessary to achieve sustained, successful outcomes. We discuss each of these approaches to leadership and offer specific practices for leaders of networks, including: shaping the network's identity and vision, attracting members, instilling leadership skills in members, and advancing common interests. These practices are then illustrated in case studies.

Superstorm Sandy and the Demographics of Flood Risk in New York City.

Superstorm Sandy and the Demographics of Flood Risk in New York City.
Faber, Jacob W. 2015. “Superstorm Sandy and the Demographics of Flood Risk in New York City.” Human Ecology, 43(3): 363-378.

Jacob William Faber
09/01/2015

“Superstorm Sandy” brought unprecedented storm surge to New York City neighborhoods and like previous severe weather events exacerbated underlying inequalities in part because socially marginalized populations were concentrated in environmentally exposed areas. This study makes three primary contributions to the literature on vulnerability. First, results show how the intersection of social factors (i.e., race, poverty, and age) relates to exposure to flooding. Second, disruption to the city’s transit infrastructure, which was most detrimental for Asians and Latinos, extended the consequences of the storm well beyond flooded areas. And third, data from New York City’s 311 system show there was variation in distress across neighborhoods of different racial makeup and that flooded neighborhoods remained distressed months after the storm. Together, these findings show that economic and racial factors overlap with flood risk to create communities with both social and environmental vulnerabilities.

Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study
Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 276, no. 1, pp 21-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2014.01.015

McClintock, T.R., Y. Chen, F. Parvez, D.V. Makarov, W. Ge, T. Islam, A. Ahmed, M. Rakibuz-Zaman, R. Hasan, G. Sarwar, V. Slavkovich, M.A. Bjurlin, J.H. Graziano, and H. Ahsan
04/01/2014

Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As.

Partisan Priorities: How Issue Ownership Drives and Distorts American Politics

Partisan Priorities: How Issue Ownership Drives and Distorts American Politics
Cambridge University Press.

Egan, Patrick J.
07/22/2013

Americans consistently name Republicans as the party better at handling issues like national security and crime, while they trust Democrats on issues like education and the environment – a phenomenon called “issue ownership.” Partisan Priorities investigates the origins of issue ownership, showing that in fact the parties deliver neither superior performance nor popular policies on the issues they “own.” Rather, Patrick J. Egan finds that Republicans and Democrats simply prioritize their owned issues with lawmaking and government spending when they are in power. Since the parties tend to be particularly ideologically rigid on the issues they own, politicians actually tend to ignore citizens' preferences when crafting policy on these issues. Thus, issue ownership distorts the relationship between citizens' preferences and public policies.

Taxes and U.S. Oil Production: Evidence From California and the Windfall Profit Tax

Taxes and U.S. Oil Production: Evidence From California and the Windfall Profit Tax
Revise & Resubmit ~ American Economic Journal: Econ Policy

Rao, Nirupama.
01/01/2013

The widespread boom in U.S. oil production has prompted state debates on levying new taxes on oil. This paper uses new well-level production data and price variation from federal oil taxes and price controls to assess how taxes affect production. Empirical estimates suggest an after-tax price elasticity ranging between 0.295 (0.038) and 0.336 (0.042). Response along the extensive margin is minimal. There is no discernible evidence of spatial shifting of production to minimize tax liabilities. Taken together the results suggest that taxes reduced domestic production in the 1980s, and the response largely came from wells that continued to pump oil, albeit at a reduced rate.

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