Governance

Welfare Reform in Miami: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods

Welfare Reform in Miami: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods
MDRC,

Brock, T., Kwakye, I., Polyné, J.C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Seith, D., Stepick, A… & Rich, S.
01/01/2004

The 1996 national welfare reform law introduced a five-year time limit on federally funded cash assistance, imposed tough new work requirements, restricted benefits for noncitizens, and gave states more flexibility to design their welfare programs than in the past. Anticipating that the law might pose particular challenges for urban areas — where poverty and welfare receipt are concentrated — MDRC launched a study to examine its implementation and effects in four big cities. This report focuses on trends in Miami-Dade County between 1996 and 2002.

Gender, Race, Class and Welfare Reform

Gender, Race, Class and Welfare Reform
Roundtable of Institutions of People of Color and the Women of Color Policy Newtwork

Walter Stafford, Diana Salas, Melissa Mendez
08/01/2003

This study on welfare reform contends that race and gender coalesce through historic and contemporary government, policy and market failures to deny benefits and jobs to women of color while blaming them for their condition. It is divided into three sections: the first addresses national policy trends with an emphasis on race and gender, the second looks at New York City, and the third offers recommendations. The report was published in the National Urban League's State of Black America, 2003.

Gender, Race,Class and Welfare Reform

Gender, Race,Class and Welfare Reform
State of Black America. National Urban League, Aug

Stafford, W.W. with Salas, D. & Mendez, M.
08/01/2003

This study on welfare reform contends that race and gender coalesce through historic and contemporary government, policy and market failures to deny benefits and jobs to women of color while blaming them for their condition. It is divided into three sections: the first addresses national policy trends with an emphasis on race and gender, the second looks at New York City, and the third offers recommendations. The report was published in the National Urban League's State of Black America, 2003.

Funding Analysis for Long-Term Planning

Funding Analysis for Long-Term Planning
Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, NYU Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, July

de Cerreño, A.L.C.
07/01/2003

In existence since 1956, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) is the source of nearly all federal highway funding and roughly four-fifths of all federal transit funding. The Highway Trust Fund is integral to the long-term transportation planning of all 50 states. However, recent Congressional Budget Office forecasts show that at the current baselines (i.e. spending at currently enacted levels with adjustments for inflation within the context of current tax policies), the Highway Account of the HTF would be depleted by 2006 and the Mass Transit Account would fall to $0 three years later. These projections have been made in the midst of discussions regarding the reauthorization for surface transportation and the looming national needs in transportation that require an estimated average annual investment from all levels of government of between $90.7 billion and $110.9 billion just to maintain the system and between $127.5 billion and $169.5 billion to improve it.

Local Government Finance and the Economics of Property Tax Exemption

Local Government Finance and the Economics of Property Tax Exemption
State Tax Notes, June 23, pp. 1053-1069.

Netzer, D.
06/01/2003

Looks at the role of the property tax exemption for charities in local government finance. If services produced by nonprofits are largely exported from a jurisdiction, then requiring full property taxes or payments in lieu of taxes is a way of exporting local tax burdens.

Welfare Caseload Change: An Alternative Approach

Welfare Caseload Change: An Alternative Approach
Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 31, no. 2 (May 2003)

Mead, L.
05/03/2003

In the last decade, caseloads in AFDC/TANF have shifted dramatically up, then down. Of existing studies based on time series or state panel data, some tend to underplay the role of welfare reform. All say little about that policies drove the decline or about the role of governmental quality. An approach using cross-sectional models explains interstate differences in caseload change rather than the national trend but allows more discussion about the role of policy and government. Results suggest that grant levels, work and child support requirements, and sanctions are important explainers of change, along with some demographic terms and unemployment. These policies in turn are tied to states' political opinion, political culture, and institutional capacity. Moralistic states seem the most capable of transforming welfare in the manner the public wants.

Dividing the Pie: Placing the Transportation Donor-Donee Debate in Perspective

Dividing the Pie: Placing the Transportation Donor-Donee Debate in Perspective
Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, NYU Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, May

Seaman, M. & de Cerreño, A.L.C
05/01/2003

This study looks at the distribution of dollars of federal transportation funding to the states from a number of perspectives. The analysis reveals relative winners and losers at the regional and state level based on various criteria. It also shows that in many respects, New York receives a very low or at best, average apportionment of federal transportation dollars. It also shows that while New York receives more in federal highway funding than it pays in highway taxes, this 'surplus' is dwarfed by the state's overall deficit with Washington, D.C.

Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report: Women of Color in New York City: Still Invisible in Policy

Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report: Women of Color in New York City: Still Invisible in Policy
Women of Color Policy Network Roundtable of Institutions of People of Color

Stafford, Walter & Salas, Diana
03/01/2003

Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy

Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy
Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report.

Stafford, W.W. & Salas, D.
03/01/2003

Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.

A Nonprofit Organization

A Nonprofit Organization
in Ruth Towse, editor, A Handbook of Cultural Economics. Cheltenham, U.K. and Nothhampton, MA: Edward Elgar,

Netzer, D.
01/01/2003

In all rich countries, firms organized on a not-for-profit basis produce cultural goods and services, along with for-profit firms (including independent professional artists) and the state. This is also true in many poorer countries. Non-profit firms are defined as organizations that have a formal structure and governance, which differ greatly among countries but share the characteristics that (1) the managers of the organization do not own the enterprise or have an economic interest that can be sold to other firms or individuals and (2) any surplus of revenue over expenditure may not be appropriated by the managers of the organization, but must be reinvested in ways that further the stated purposes of the organization. Obviously, such organizations will not be formed and continue to exist unless the organizers and managers expect and realize some economic rewards, including money compensation for their own services and non-financial rewards like consumption benefits (producing cultural goods and services that they want to enjoy but which will not be produced without their efforts) and personal status.

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