Governance

Enrolling Children in Public Insurance: SCHIP, Medicaid, and State Implementation

Enrolling Children in Public Insurance: SCHIP, Medicaid, and State Implementation
Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law; Jun 2004, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p451-489, 39p.

Kronebusch, K. & Elbel, B.
06/01/2004

The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 established federal grants to the states to create the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This presented the states with a number of implementation choices concerning administrative models for the new programs, as well as choices about eligibility standards, enrollment simplification, crowd-out, and cost sharing requirements. At the same time, the states were also implementing welfare reform. We describe the most important of these implementation choices, and using data from the Current Population Survey, we estimate the impacts of state policy on enrollment in this multiprogram environment. The results indicate that SCHIP programs that are administered as Medicaid expansions are more successful than either separate SCHIP plans or combination programs in enrolling children. States that remove asset tests and implement presumptive eligibility and self-declaration of income have higher enrollment levels. Continuous eligibility and adoption of mail-in applications have no effect on overall enrollment. Waiting periods and premiums reduce enrollment. Stringent welfare reform reduces children's enrollment, despite federal policy that was intended to protect children from the consequences of welfare reform. The negative impacts of a number of these policy reforms substantially reduce enrollment, potentially offsetting the more favorable impacts of other policy choices. We estimate that if all states adopted the policy options that facilitate program use, enrollment for children with family incomes less than 200 percent of the poverty line could be raised from the current rate of 42 percent to 58 percent.

State Political Culture and Welfare Reform

State Political Culture and Welfare Reform
Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 32, no. 2 (May 2004)

Mead, L.
05/01/2004

I investigate the link between the general features of state governments and their ability to reform welfare. The best indicator of governments’ characteristics is Elazar’s political cultures. I define what successful welfare reform means, drawing on implementation research and experience. My criteria stress process, the avoidance of political and administrative problems. I then test the link between the Elazar cultures and successful reform using recent case studies of state implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Elazar’s “moralistic” states perform best, and the association holds, even controlling for other influences. Results depend, however, on how welfare reform is defined.

High-Speed Rail Projects in the U.S.: Identifying the Elements for Success, Interim Report” Preliminary Review of Cases and Recommendations for Phase 2

High-Speed Rail Projects in the U.S.: Identifying the Elements for Success, Interim Report” Preliminary Review of Cases and Recommendations for Phase 2
Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, NYU Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, March

de Cerreño, A.L.C.
03/01/2004

The goal of this study, funded by the Mineta Transportation Institute is to identify lessons learned for successfully developing and implementing HSR in the United States. There are very few broad statements that can be made of HSGT in the United States. However, two points are clear: (1) with the exception of the Northeast Corridor there has been relatively little forward movement if one looks at the number of years spent on many of these projects; and, (2) the Federal government has played and continues to play a minimal role in HSGT, generally restricting its efforts to funding pilot studies and technological research. Thus, given the early stages of these projects, “success” cannot be based on implementation. Instead, it is defined in terms of whether a given HSR project is still actively pursuing development and/or funding. Proceeding in two phases, Phase 1 constitutes a literature review following two parallel tracks: (1) an assessment of federal (and where warranted, state) legislation to determine what was intended in terms of objectives and criteria identified in the legislation; and, (2) a broader literature review that briefly assesses all HSR efforts in the United States since 1980 to determine their history and current status. This interim report is intended to outline the information collected from the second track of Phase I and to provide recommendations on which cases should be more closely examined.

City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer

City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer
Northampton, Mass: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.,

Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2004

In a festschrift to Netzer a public finance economist well known for his research on state and local taxation, urban public services, and nonprofit organizations eight chapters apply microeconomics to problems facing urban areas and use statistical analysis to gain insight into practical solutions. The essays look at alternative methods of financing urban government, such as a land value tax and the impact of sales and income taxes on property taxation; at government expenditures, including housing subsidies; and at subsidies to nonprofit arts groups as well as the role of the nonprofit sector in providing K-12 education. Of interest to the fields of public finance, urban economics, and public administration.

Expenditure Assignment Under Indonesia's Decentralization: A Review of Progress and Issues for the Future

Expenditure Assignment Under Indonesia's Decentralization: A Review of Progress and Issues for the Future
in J. Alm and J. Martinez, Reforming Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and the Rebuilding of Indonesia. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar,

Smoke, P.
01/01/2004

Indonesia is currently facing some severe challenges, both in political affairs and in economic management. One of these challenges is the recently enacted decentralization program, now well underway, which promises to have some wide-ranging consequences. This edited volume presents original papers, written by a select group of widely recognized and distinguished scholars, that take a hard, objective look at the many effects of decentralization on economic and political issues in Indonesia. There are many questions about this program: how will it be implemented, is there capacity at the local level to implement its reforms, is there sufficient local political accountability to make it work, and how will the decentralization affect the broader program of economic growth and stabilization? Topics covered include: the historical and political dimensions of decentralization, its macroeconomic effects, its effects on poverty alleviation, the assignment of expenditure and revenue functions across levels of government, the design of transfers, the role of natural resource taxation and the effects of local government borrowing. An authoritative, comprehensive collection, Reforming Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and the Rebuilding of Indonesia will be of interest to economists and policy makers as well as students of public finance, development, and Asian economics.

Governmental and Not-for-Profit Accounting

Governmental and Not-for-Profit Accounting
Fifth Edition, by Ives, Razek, and Hosch, and Ives, Prentice-Hall (Fourth edition has been published in Chinese).

Ives, M., Razek, J. & Hosch, G.
01/01/2004

For use in Governmental Accounting, Not-for-Profit Accounting and Public Administration courses.
Covering the essentials of fund accounting and financial reporting, this flexible book introduces the reader to the basic accounting and reporting principles at work in both governmental and not-for-profit organizations. This easy-to-read book divides most of the chapters into independent sections, which may be covered as separate units.

High Performance Government: Structure, Leadership, Incentives

High Performance Government: Structure, Leadership, Incentives
Rand,

Light, P.C. & Klitgaard, R.
01/01/2004

Fixing problems in the federal government. In 2003, the National Commission on the Public Service, chaired by Paul Volcker, issued a report detailing problems within the federal government today and recommending changes in its organization, leadership, and operations. This book suggests practical ways to implement the recommendations and defines a research agenda for the future. Thirteen essays address the primary problem areas identified by the Volcker Commission, and the commission report itself is included.

Opening Doors and Building Capacity: Employing a Community-Based Approach to Surveying

Opening Doors and Building Capacity: Employing a Community-Based Approach to Surveying
Journal of Urban Health. 2004;81:291-300.

Kaplan, S.A., Dillman, K.N., Calman, N.S. & Billings, J.
01/01/2004

Although many community-based initiatives employ community residents to undertake door-to-door surveys as a form of community mobilization or for purposes of needs assessment or evaluation, very little has been published on the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. This article discusses our experience in undertaking such a survey in collaboration with a coalition of community-based organizations (CBOs) in the South Bronx, New York. Although resource constraints limited the already-strained capacity of the CBOs to provide supervision, the CBOs and community surveyors helped us gain access to neighborhood buildings and to individuals who might otherwise have been inaccessible. The survey process also contributed to the coalition's community outreach efforts and helped to link the CBO leadership and staff more closely to the coalition and its mission. Many of the surveyors enhanced their knowledge and skills in ways that have since benefited them or the coalition directly. The participating CBOs continue to be deeply engaged in the coalition's work, and many of the surveyors are active as community health advocates and have taken leadership roles within the coalition.

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