Health Policy

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants
Obesity (Silver Spring). Oct 2011; 19(10): 1971–1978.

Elbel, B.
10/04/2010

Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale.

Childhood Obesity: public health impact and policy responses

Childhood Obesity: public health impact and policy responses
"Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity: Current Status, Consequences and Prevention" Debasis Bagchi, Editor. Sept-2010

Kersh, R. & Elbel, B.
09/17/2010

Understanding the complex factors contributing to the growing childhood obesity epidemic is vital not only for the improved health of the world's future generations, but for the healthcare system. The impact of childhood obesity reaches beyond the individual family and into the public arenas of social systems and government policy and programs. Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity explores these with an approach that considers the current state of childhood obesity around the world as well as future projections, the most highly cited factors contributing to childhood obesity, what it means for the future both for children and society, and suggestions for steps to address and potentially prevent childhood obesity.

Urban Aging, Social Isolation, and Emergency Preparedness

Urban Aging, Social Isolation, and Emergency Preparedness
IFA Global Ageing Vol. 6 Issue 2, p39

Gusmano, M.K & Rodwin, V.G.
08/03/2010

The article presents a review of an individual approach to emergency preparedness for socially isolated elderly city dwellers. It cites crisis instances highlighting older persons' vulnerability and the importance of neighborhood characteristics as the isolated elderly had reportedly higher mortality rates in poor neighborhoods and abandoned lots than in equally poor but more socially-connected neighborhoods. It suggests a population-based case management requiring information dissemination and outreach strategies for finding and assisting older persons.

A la santé de l'oncle Sam: regards croisés sur les systémes de santé; américain et français (To Uncle Sam's Health: Cross perspectives on the American and French Health Systems)

A la santé de l'oncle Sam: regards croisés sur les systémes de santé; américain et français (To Uncle Sam's Health: Cross perspectives on the American and French Health Systems)
Paris, Jacob-Duvernet

Tabuteau, D., Rodwin, V.G.
08/01/2010

Victor Rodwin, professor of health policy and management at NYU Wagner, and his colleague Didier Tabuteau, counselor of state and professor of health policy at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques and the University of Paris Descartes, have published a new book (published by Editions Jacob Duvernet) in which they challenge the conventional wisdom that the French health care system is a government-managed, public and collective enterprise and the American system a private, market-oriented and individualist system. Based on six months of debates in Paris while Professor Rodwin held the Fulbright-Toqueville Chair (spring semester, 2010), this book compares public health, health insurance, the power of physicians, health care reform, and the silent revolution that is transforming health care organization in both France and the United States.

Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993-2006

Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993-2006
Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):291-7.

Stroustrup A, Trasande L.
08/01/2010

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the trends in incidence of diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and associated health services use for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD in an era of changing definitions and management.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

All neonatal hospitalization records available through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993-2006, were analyzed. Multivariable regression analyses were performed for incidence of BPD diagnosis and associated hospital length of stay and charges. Multiple models were constructed to assess the roles of changes in diagnosis of very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and different modalities of respiratory support used for treatment.

RESULTS:

The absolute incidence of diagnosis of BPD fell 3.3% annually (P = .0009) between 1993 and 2006 coincident with a 3.5-fold increase in the use of noninvasive respiratory support in patients with BPD. When data were controlled for demographic factors, this significant decrease in incidence persisted at a rate of 4.3% annually (P = .0002). All models demonstrated a rise in hospital length of stay and financial charges for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD. The incidence of BPD adjusted for frequency of prolonged mechanical ventilation also decreased but only by 2.8% annually (P = .0075).

CONCLUSIONS:

The incidence of diagnosis of BPD decreased significantly between 1993 and 2006. In well-controlled models, birth hospitalization charges for these patients rose during the same period. Less invasive ventilatory support may improve respiratory outcomes of VLBW neonates.

A Philanthropy Tackles Growth In Health Costs At The State Level

A Philanthropy Tackles Growth In Health Costs At The State Level
Health Affairs, 29, no. 7 (2010): 1411-1414 

Sandman, D., & Kovner, A.
07/01/2010

Slowing the rate of growth of health spending is as critical a goal at the state level as it is at the national level. Philanthropy can hardly address this issue alone, yet it has an obligation to take on big and seemingly intractable problems. The New York State Health Foundation is committed to stimulating innovative and replicable approaches to bending the cost curve.

This article describes how the foundation recently awarded six grants to support efforts related to payment reform, hospital re-admissions, medical malpractice reform, palliative care, and the quantification of other cost containment approaches that could be pursued atthe state level.

Hospital Performance, the Local Economy, and the Local Workforce: Findings from a US National Longitudinal Study

Hospital Performance, the Local Economy, and the Local Workforce: Findings from a US National Longitudinal Study
PLoS Med 7(6): e1000297. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000297

Blustein, J., Borden, W.B., Valentine, M.
06/29/2010

Abstract

Background: Pay-for-performance is an increasingly popular approach to improving health care quality, and the US government will soon implement pay-for-performance in hospitals nationwide. Yet hospital capacity to perform (and

improve performance) likely depends on local resources. In this study, we quantify the association between hospital performance and local economic and human resources, and describe possible implications of pay-for-performance for socioeconomic equity.

Methods and Findings: We applied county-level measures of local economic and workforce resources to a national sample of US hospitals (n = 2,705), during the period 2004–2007. We analyzed performance for two common cardiac conditions (acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and heart failure [HF]), using process-of-care measures from the Hospital Quality Alliance [HQA], and isolated temporal trends and the contributions of individual resource dimensions on performance, using multivariable mixed models. Performance scores were translated into net scores for hospitals using the Performance Assessment Model, which has been suggested as a basis for reimbursement under Medicare’s ‘‘Value-Based Purchasing’’ program. Our analyses showed that hospital performance is substantially associated with local economic and workforce resources. For example, for HF in 2004, hospitals located in counties with longstanding poverty had mean HQA composite scores of 73.0, compared with a mean of 84.1 for hospitals in counties without longstanding poverty (p,0.001). Hospitals located in counties in the lowest quartile with respect to college graduates in the workforce had mean HQA composite scores of 76.7, compared with a mean of 86.2 for hospitals in the highest quartile (p,0.001). Performance on AMI measures showed similar patterns. Performance improved generally over the study period. Nevertheless, by 2007—4 years after public reporting began—hospitals in locationally disadvantaged areas still lagged behind their locationally advantaged counterparts. This lag translated into substantially lower net scores under the Performance Assessment Model for hospital reimbursement.

Conclusions: Hospital performance on clinical process measures is associated with the quantity and quality of local economic and human resources. Medicare’s hospital pay-for-performance program may exacerbate inequalities across regions, if implemented as currently proposed. Policymakers in the US and beyond may need to take into consideration the balance between greater efficiency through pay-for-performance and socioeconomic equity.

Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.

Health Care in World Cities: New York, London and Paris

Health Care in World Cities: New York, London and Paris
Johns Hopkins University Press, April

Gusmano, M.K., Rodwin, V.G. & Weisz, D.
04/01/2010

New York. London. Paris. Although these cities have similar sociodemographic characteristics, including income inequalities and ethic diversity, they have vastly different health systems and services. This book compares the three and considers lessons that can be applied to current and future debates about urban health care.

Highlighting the importance of a national policy for city health systems, the authors use well-established indicators and comparable data sources to shed light on urban health policy and practice. Their detailed comparison of the three city health systems and the national policy regimes in which they function provides information about access to health care in the developed world's largest cities.

The authors first review the current literature on comparative analysis of health systems and offer a brief overview of the public health infrastructure in each city. Later chapters illustrate how timely and appropriate disease prevention, primary care, and specialty health care services can help cities control such problems as premature mortality and heart disease.

In providing empirical comparisons of access to care in these three health systems, the authors refute inaccurate claims about health care outside of the United States.

Click here for a brief excerpt of the content.

A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico

A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico
Environ Health. 2010 Mar 23;9:14

Cifuentes E, Trasande L, Ramirez M, Landrigan PJ.
03/01/2010

BACKGROUND:

Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards.

METHODS:

We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation.

RESULTS:

We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform.

CONCLUSIONS:

The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique vulnerability to environmental contaminants. If regulation and legislation are not updated and implemented to protect children, increases in preventable exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment may ensue.

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