Housing & Community Development

Is Southeast Asia the Second Front?

Is Southeast Asia the Second Front?
Foreign Affairs, July/August 2002

Gershman, J.
07/01/2002

With U.S. troops on the ground in the Philippines and closer military ties developing to other countries in the region, Washington is taking the war on terror to Southeast Asia. But a military approach to the region's problems would be a deadly mistake: it could weaken local democracies and turn neutral forces into new enemies.

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination
A Report to the Legislature by the NYU Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, July,

Peyrebrune, H. & de Cerreño, A.L.C
07/01/2002

Prepared at the request of the New York State Assembly Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices, and funded by an appropriation made available from the New York Department of Transportation's budget, the purpose of this report is to provide a review of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) as they relate to New York State transportation programs and policy and to highlight policy concerns for further consideration by the state.

Evaluation of Continuums of Care For Homeless People

Evaluation of Continuums of Care For Homeless People
Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute

Burt, M., D. Pollack, A. Sosland, K. Mikelson, E. Drapa, K. Greenwalt, and P. Sharkey
05/01/2002

The purpose of this project was to examine Continuums of Care for homeless people throughout the United States, to understand their development, their current structure, and their likely future. A Continuum of Care (CoC) is, ideally, a system for helping people who are or have been homeless or who are at imminent risk of homelessness. A full CoC includes prevention, outreach and assessment, emergency shelter, transitional housing, permanent supportive housing, and affordable housing, plus supportive services in all components. HUD has promoted the CoC concept through much of the 1990s, and has structured its competitive funding under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act to further CoC development.

This study sought to answer several questions about the ways in which local communities are organized into CoCs to address homelessness:

• What do local homeless assistance networks look like, how do they work, and whom do they serve?

• Are all the important players, or their representatives, included in planning the local CoC and coordinating their programs and services?

• How well are homeless and mainstream services integrated?

• What goals is each jurisdiction trying to accomplish with its CoC—helping homeless people, ending homelessness, or some combination—and how does its concept of its “continuum” further those goals?

• What role does data or statistics about homeless people, services, and program performance play in the planning process and in decisions about what to support?

• How has the HUD requirement for a coordinated community-wide application affected development of CoCs, client access to and receipt of needed programs and services, inclusion of relevant homeless-specific and mainstream players, and data-based decision making?

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, March, Vol 31, No. 1, pp. 5-31.

Ospina, S., Diaz, W. & O'Sullivan, J.
03/01/2002

This article explores the emerging conceptualization of accountability in nonprofit organizations. This definition broadens traditional concerns with finances, internal controls, and regulatory compliance. The authors explore how the top-level managers of 4 identity-based nonprofit organizations (IBNPs) faced accountability and responsiveness challenges to accomplish their mission. The organization-community link was the core relationship in their accountability environment, helping the IBNP managers achieve what the literature calls "negotiated accountability." The managers favored organizational mechanisms to sustain this relationship in the midst of the accountability demands they experienced daily. Communication with the primary constituency tended to drive the organization's priorities and programs, helped managers find legitimate negotiation tools with other stakeholders, and helped develop a broader notion of accountability. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for other nonprofit organizations and propose questions to further clarify the concepts of broad accountability, negotiated accountability, and the link between accountability and responsiveness in nonprofits.

Building Homes, Reviving Neighborhoods: Spillovers from Subsidized Construction of Owner-Occupied Housing in New York City

Building Homes, Reviving Neighborhoods: Spillovers from Subsidized Construction of Owner-Occupied Housing in New York City
Journal of Housing Research 12(2), pp. 185�216. Reprinted in Eric Belsky, ed., Low-Income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Susin, S.
01/01/2002

This article examines the impact of two New York City homeownership programs on surrounding property values. Both programs, Nehemiah Program and the Partnership New Homes program subsidize the construction of affordable owner-occupied homes in distressed neighborhoods. We use a geocoded data set that includes every property transaction in the City from 1980 to 1999.

Our analysis relies on a difference-in-difference approach. Specifically, we compare the prices of properties in small rings surrounding the Partnership and Nehemiah sites with prices of comparable properties that are in the same ZIP code but outside the ring. We then examine whether the magnitude of this difference changes after the completion of a homeownership development. Our results show that during the past two decades prices of properties in the rings surrounding the homeownership projects have risen relative to their ZIP codes. Results suggest that part of that rise is attributable to the affordable homeownership programs.

 

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 21, #1, Winter 2002, pp. 138-144.

Denison, D., Finkler, S.A. & Mead, D.
01/01/2002

Discusses the challenges posed by incorporating Statement No. 34 of the U.S. Governmental Accounting Standards Board, Basic Financial Statements-and Management's Discussion and Analysis-for State and Local Governments (GASB 34) in the core curriculum of a school. Generally accepted accounting principles and GASB 34; Pedagogical issues in GASB 34; Dynamism in learning governmental accounting.

Learning from Experience: A Primer on Tax Increment Financing

Learning from Experience: A Primer on Tax Increment Financing
Fiscal Brief, New York City Independent Budget Office, September

Devine, T.
01/01/2002

To fund the estimated $1.5 billion extension of the No. 7 subway and perhaps other redevelopment proposals on Manhattan’s Far West Side, there has been increasing discussion of using a borrowing method known as tax increment financing, or TIF. The basic idea underlying TIF is that a city or town finances an improvement in a specific district with the property tax revenue generated by that improvement. While TIF has been used extensively throughout the country in cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C., it has never been used here. This report provides a primer on TIF––what it is, key features of the laws that authorize it, the types of projects undertaken, some of the reasons for its popularity, and a review of how it has worked in some other localities. Among the lessons from our review: • While TIF has proven to be an effective and flexible financing method in a variety of settings, some municipalities have encountered problems with their projects, including insufficient revenue to pay debt service. • TIF has been used to finance a variety of public works projects, but most have been small-scale. Larger projects usually have been joint ventures, mostly with private partners. No TIF project has been as costly as the proposed No. 7 extension. The report concludes with a discussion of issues that will have to be considered before relying on TIF for financing the proposed subway extension. These considerations will be more closely examined in a subsequent IBO report that will look at the viability of tax increment financing for extending the No. 7.

Mother-Child Separations Among Homeless and Housed Families Receiving Public Assistance in New York City

Mother-Child Separations Among Homeless and Housed Families Receiving Public Assistance in New York City
American Journal of Community Psychology 30:5, pp. 711-730.

Cowal, K., Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D. & Labay, L.
01/01/2002

We examined the incidence, characteristics, and predictors of separations of children from mothers in 543 poor families receiving public assistance, 251 of whom had experienced homelessness during the previous 5 years. Forty-four percent of the homeless mothers and 8% of housed mothers were separated from one or more children. A total of 249 children were separated from 110 homeless families and 34 children from 23 housed families. Children were placed with relatives and in foster care but were rarely returned to their mothers. Maternal drug dependence, domestic violence, and institutionalization predicted separations, but homelessness was the most important predictor, equivalent in size to 1.9 other risk factors. We infer that policies regarding child welfare and substance abuse treatment should be changed to reduce unnecessary placements. Studies of homeless children who remain with families may be biased if separated children are excluded.

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