Housing & Community Development

Building Homes, Reviving Neighborhoods: Spillovers from Subsidized Construction of Owner-Occupied Housing in New York City

Building Homes, Reviving Neighborhoods: Spillovers from Subsidized Construction of Owner-Occupied Housing in New York City
Journal of Housing Research 12(2), pp. 185�216. Reprinted in Eric Belsky, ed., Low-Income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Susin, S.
01/01/2002

This article examines the impact of two New York City homeownership programs on surrounding property values. Both programs, Nehemiah Program and the Partnership New Homes program subsidize the construction of affordable owner-occupied homes in distressed neighborhoods. We use a geocoded data set that includes every property transaction in the City from 1980 to 1999.

Our analysis relies on a difference-in-difference approach. Specifically, we compare the prices of properties in small rings surrounding the Partnership and Nehemiah sites with prices of comparable properties that are in the same ZIP code but outside the ring. We then examine whether the magnitude of this difference changes after the completion of a homeownership development. Our results show that during the past two decades prices of properties in the rings surrounding the homeownership projects have risen relative to their ZIP codes. Results suggest that part of that rise is attributable to the affordable homeownership programs.

 

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management

GASB Statement 34: Curriculum and Teaching Concerns for Schools of Public Policy and Management
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 21, #1, Winter 2002, pp. 138-144.

Denison, D., Finkler, S.A. & Mead, D.
01/01/2002

Discusses the challenges posed by incorporating Statement No. 34 of the U.S. Governmental Accounting Standards Board, Basic Financial Statements-and Management's Discussion and Analysis-for State and Local Governments (GASB 34) in the core curriculum of a school. Generally accepted accounting principles and GASB 34; Pedagogical issues in GASB 34; Dynamism in learning governmental accounting.

Learning from Experience: A Primer on Tax Increment Financing

Learning from Experience: A Primer on Tax Increment Financing
Fiscal Brief, New York City Independent Budget Office, September

Devine, T.
01/01/2002

To fund the estimated $1.5 billion extension of the No. 7 subway and perhaps other redevelopment proposals on Manhattan’s Far West Side, there has been increasing discussion of using a borrowing method known as tax increment financing, or TIF. The basic idea underlying TIF is that a city or town finances an improvement in a specific district with the property tax revenue generated by that improvement. While TIF has been used extensively throughout the country in cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C., it has never been used here. This report provides a primer on TIF––what it is, key features of the laws that authorize it, the types of projects undertaken, some of the reasons for its popularity, and a review of how it has worked in some other localities. Among the lessons from our review: • While TIF has proven to be an effective and flexible financing method in a variety of settings, some municipalities have encountered problems with their projects, including insufficient revenue to pay debt service. • TIF has been used to finance a variety of public works projects, but most have been small-scale. Larger projects usually have been joint ventures, mostly with private partners. No TIF project has been as costly as the proposed No. 7 extension. The report concludes with a discussion of issues that will have to be considered before relying on TIF for financing the proposed subway extension. These considerations will be more closely examined in a subsequent IBO report that will look at the viability of tax increment financing for extending the No. 7.

Mother-Child Separations Among Homeless and Housed Families Receiving Public Assistance in New York City

Mother-Child Separations Among Homeless and Housed Families Receiving Public Assistance in New York City
American Journal of Community Psychology 30:5, pp. 711-730.

Cowal, K., Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D. & Labay, L.
01/01/2002

We examined the incidence, characteristics, and predictors of separations of children from mothers in 543 poor families receiving public assistance, 251 of whom had experienced homelessness during the previous 5 years. Forty-four percent of the homeless mothers and 8% of housed mothers were separated from one or more children. A total of 249 children were separated from 110 homeless families and 34 children from 23 housed families. Children were placed with relatives and in foster care but were rarely returned to their mothers. Maternal drug dependence, domestic violence, and institutionalization predicted separations, but homelessness was the most important predictor, equivalent in size to 1.9 other risk factors. We infer that policies regarding child welfare and substance abuse treatment should be changed to reduce unnecessary placements. Studies of homeless children who remain with families may be biased if separated children are excluded.

Replicating Microfinance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

Replicating Microfinance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges
(with Mark Schreiner) Chapter 1 of Replicating Microfinance in the United States, edited by Jim Carr and Zhong Yi Tong. Baltimore: Woodrow Wilson Center/Johns Hopkins University Press,

Morduch, J.
01/01/2002

Microfinance was pioneered in the developing world as the lending of small amounts of money to entrepreneurs who lacked the kinds of credentials and collateral demanded by banks. Similar practices spread from the developing to the developed world, reversing the usual direction of innovation, and today several hundred microfinance institutions are operating in the United States.

Replicating Microfinance in the United States reviews experiences in both developing and industrialized countries and extends the applications of microlending beyond enterprise to consumer finance, housing finance, and community development finance.

This book reviews experiences in both developing and industrial countries and extends the applications of microlending beyond enterprise to consumer finance, housing finance, and community development finance, concentrating especially on previously underserved households and their communities.

 

Revitalizing Inner-City Neighborhoods: New York City's Ten Year Plan for Housing

Revitalizing Inner-City Neighborhoods: New York City's Ten Year Plan for Housing
Housing Policy Debate 13(3),

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Voicu, I.
01/01/2002

This article examines the impact of New York City's Ten-Year Plan on the sale prices of homes in surrounding neighborhoods. Beginning in the mid-1980s, New York City invested $5.1 billion in constructing or rehabilitating over 180,000 units of housing in many of the city's most distressed neighborhoods. One of the main purposes was to spur neighborhood revitalization.

In this article, we describe the origins of the Ten-Year Plan, as well as the various programs the city used to implement it, and estimate whether housing built or rehabilitated under the Ten-Year Plan affected the prices of nearby homes. The prices of homes within 500 feet of Ten-Year Plan units rose relative to those located beyond 500 feet, but still within the same census tract. These findings are consistent with the proposition that well-planned project based housing programs can generate positive spillover effects and contribute to efforts to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods.

 

Setting an Agenda for Local Action: The Limits of Expert Opinion and Community Voice

Setting an Agenda for Local Action: The Limits of Expert Opinion and Community Voice
Policy Studies Journal (2002 - Vol. 30, No. 3), pp. 362-278.

Silver, D., Weitzman, B.C. & Brecher, C.
01/01/2002

Many social programs, funded by government or philanthropy, begin with efforts to improve local conditions with strategic planning. Mandated by funders, these processes aim to include the views of community residents and those with technical expertise. Program leaders are left to reconcile public and expert opinions in determining how to shape their programs. The experience of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative suggests that although consultation with experts and the public failed to reveal a clear assessment of the community's problems or their solutions, it did assist in engaging diverse groups. Despite this engagement, however, core leaders wielded substantial power in selecting the agenda.

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