Housing & Community Development

Anti-Democratic Demos: Public Ignorance & Congress

Anti-Democratic Demos: Public Ignorance & Congress
Critical Review 1998, Volume 12 Number 4.

Kersh, R.
01/01/1998

In representing a fragmented pluralist polity, the U.S. Congress inevitably exhibits high levels of conflict and disagreement. Increasingly, the American public finds such conflict-the ordinary procedures of legislative democracy-distasteful. As members of Congress pay closer attention to approval ratings and other poll measures, their natural inclination may be to avoid legislating, especially on controversial issues. This response to the preference of the demos has profoundly antidemocratic implications.

From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development

From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development
Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization/WHO. .

Rodriguez-Garcia, R., Macinko, J. & Casas, J. (Eds.)
01/01/1998

Civil, political and military conflict--Natural and man-made disasters--Poverty and human suffering...As the new millennium approaches, the need for humanitarian assistance in response to these global challenges endures. Complex humanitarian emergencies demand human, financial and material resources on an international scale. This presents the global community, and particularly the health sector, with a formidable and daunting task: Faced with limited resources, how can organizations and actors simultaneously meet immediate humanitarian needs while maintaining their commitment to long term human development? More specifically, how can humanitarian relief and sustainable human development efforts be linked? From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development responds and reacts to this question by serving as a forum for distinguished members of the health and development arena to present issues, policies and innovative programs in response. Divided into three sections, the book examines the humanitarian assistance-human development continuum within the global-policy context of human development, reviews humanitarian assistance as a social phenomena, highlights country experiences in Rwanda and Bosnia, and discusses means of relieving human suffering and restoring infrastructure and health and social services in the aftermath of conflict. In this thought-provoking, informative volume, the perspectives, experiences and proposals of specialists from academic institutions, national and international agencies and non-governmental organizations are united to help inform future policy, inspire programmatic action and, ultimately, bridge the gap between humanitarian assistance and human development.

Homelessness

Homelessness
in Encyclopedia of Mental Health, Volume 2, Dr. Howard Friedman (ed.), Academic Press, pp. 393-402.

Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C. & Hopper, K.
01/01/1998

Predictors of Homelessness from Shelter Request to Housing Stability Among Families in New York City

Predictors of Homelessness from Shelter Request to Housing Stability Among Families in New York City
American Journal of Public Health, 88:11, pp. 1651-57.

Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D., Knickman, J.R., Jimenez, L., Duchon, L., James, S. & Krantz, D.H.
01/01/1998

This study examined predictors of entry onto shelter and subsequent housing stability for a cohort of families receiving public assistance in New York City. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 266 families as they requested shelter and with a comparison sample of 298 families selected at random from the welfare caseload. Respondents were reinterviewed 5 years later. Families with prior history of shelter use were excluded from the follow-up study. Results. Demographic characteristics and housing conditions were the most important risk factors for shelter entry; enduring poverty and disruptive social experiences also contributed. Five years later, four fifths of sheltered families had their own apartment. Receipt of subsidized housing was the primary predictor of housing stability among formerly homeless families (odd ratio [OR] = 20.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 9.9, 42.9). Conclusions. Housing subsidies are critical to ending homelessness among families.

Resolving Conflict Creatively: Evaluating the Developmental Effects of a School-Based Violence Prevention Program in Neighborhood and Classroom Context

Resolving Conflict Creatively: Evaluating the Developmental Effects of a School-Based Violence Prevention Program in Neighborhood and Classroom Context
Development and Psychopathology, 10(2), 187-213.

Aber, J.L., Jones, S.M., Brown, J.L., Chaudry, N. & Samples, F.
01/01/1998

This study evaluated the short-term impact of a school-based violence prevention initiative on developmental processes thought to place children at risk for future aggression and violence and examined the influence of classroom and neighborhood contexts on the effectiveness of the violence prevention initiative. Two waves of developmental data (fall and spring) were analyzed from the 1st year of the evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP), which includes 5053 children from grades two to six from 11 elementary schools in New York City. Three distinct profiles of exposure to the intervention were derived from Management Information System (MIS) data on between classroom differences in teacher Training and Coaching in RCCP, Classroom Instruction in RCCP, and percentages of students who are Peer Mediators. Developmental processes that place children at risk were found to increase over the course of the school year. Children whose teachers had a moderate amount of training and coaching from RCCP and who taught many lessons showed significantly slower growth in aggression-related processes, and less of a decrease in competence-related processes, compared to children whose teachers taught few or no lessons. Contrary to expectation, children whose teachers had a higher level of training and coaching in the RCCP but taught few lessons showed significantly faster growth over time in aggressive cognitions and behaviors. The impact of the intervention on children’s social cognitions (but not on their interpersonal behaviors) varied by context. Specifically the positive effect of High Lessons was dampened for children in high-risk classrooms and neighborhoods. Implications for future research on developmental psychopathology in context and for the design of preventive interventions are discussed.

The Organization of Exposure to Violence Among Urban Adolescents: Clinical, Prevention, and Research Implications

The Organization of Exposure to Violence Among Urban Adolescents: Clinical, Prevention, and Research Implications
In D.J. Flannery, & C.R. Huff (Eds.), Youth Violence: Prevention, Intervention, and Social Policy, (pp. 119-141). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Allen, L., Jones, S.M., Seidman, E. & Aber, J.L.
01/01/1998

Providing the latest research on effective prevention and intervention strategies for reducing youth violence, Youth Violence: Prevention, Intervention, and Social Policy is a comprehensive resource for dealing with both perpetrators and victims of violence and understanding the risk factors facing youth.

The State of Municipal Services in the 1990s: The New York City Department of Correction

The State of Municipal Services in the 1990s: The New York City Department of Correction
Citizens Budget Commission, August.

Brecher, C., Kane, S. & Mead, D.
08/01/1997

This report is the first of a series assessing the performance of municipal agencies from 1990 to 1996, a period marked by fiscal austerity and retrenchment. The CBC concludes that the City improved the quality of living conditions in jails, but reduced the quality of some inmate services. Overall, the Department of Correction failed to improve efficiency despite some significant accomplishments.

Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence

Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence
Housing Policy Debate 8(4), pp. 833-866.

Ellen, I.G. & Turner, M.
01/01/1997

This article synthesizes findings from a wide range of empirical research into how neighborhoods affect families and children. It lays out a conceptual framework for understanding how neighborhoods may affect people at different life stages. It then identifies methodological challenges, summarizes past research findings, and suggests priorities for future work.

Despite a growing body of evidence that neighborhood conditions play a role in shaping individual outcomes, serious methodological challenges remain that suggest some caution in interpreting this evidence. Moreover, no consensus emerges about which neighborhood characteristics affect which outcomes, or about what types of families may be most influenced by neighborhood conditions. Finally, existing studies provide little empirical evidence about the causal mechanisms through which neighborhood environment influences individual outcomes. To be useful to policy makers, future empirical research should tackle the critical question of how and for whom neighborhood matters.

 

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