Housing & Community Development

Getting it Together: Social and Institutional Obstacles to Getting off the Streets

Getting it Together: Social and Institutional Obstacles to Getting off the Streets
Sociological Forum. 11: 25-40.

Conley, D.
01/01/1996

Avoiding macrostructural or individualistic explanations as to why homeless individuals cannot get off the streets, this paper examines the social structure of street life as it impinges on a sample of homeless persons' chances of obtaining nonshelter housing. Specifically, by interviewing 42 homeless individuals about a housing grant offered by New York State and the possibility of obtaining shared housing arrangements with such a grant, this study documents possible ways in which the social relations homeless people have with institutions and each other may dash potential efforts to obtain nonshelter housing. The research finds that distrust of the homeless among landlords and a high level of contingency with respect to welfare cases interact with distrustful personal relations among the sample of homeless themselves to reduce the likelihood of successful utilization of the housing grant. Due to sample limitations, findings from this study cannot be generalized to all homeless; nonetheless they offer insight into a dynamic which may be similar to those at work among other homeless sub-populations as well.

Residential Mobility and Mortgages

Residential Mobility and Mortgages
Regional Science and Urban Economics 26(3-4), June 1996, pages 287-311.

Chan, S.
01/01/1996

Mortgage applications are a detailed and accurate source of household information that is verified by underwriters, making it a more accurate data source than self-reported survey answers. This paper discusses how mortgage data can be applied to areas of economics outside mortgage finance. As a supplement to variables from the application form, the self-selection of mortgage points is used to infer expected mobility. A duration model of housing spells is estimated, and the points indicator is shown to be highly significant in predicting mobility for low loan-to-value borrowers. The findings demonstrate the potential fruitfulness of using this new data source.

The Validity of Hospital Administrative Data in Monitoring Variations in Breast Cancer Surgery

The Validity of Hospital Administrative Data in Monitoring Variations in Breast Cancer Surgery
American J Public Health. 1996;86:243-245.

Kahn, L.H., Blustein, J., Arons, R.R., Yee, R.Y. & Shea, S.
01/01/1996

To assess the validity of using hospital administrative data to measure variations in surgery for early-stage breast cancer, ICD-9-CM coded information was compared with corresponding tumor registry data for 1293 breast cancer patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy at a tertiary referral center from January 1989 to October 1993. Relative to "gold standard" tumor registry data, the administrative data proved 83.4% sensitive and 80.4% specific in identifying women with localized disease who would be potential candidates for lumpectomy. The proportion of women with localized disease undergoing lumpectomy in groups defined by race and insurance status was nearly identical, whichever data were used. Administrative data, which is often readily and publicly available, may be useful in studying variations in breast cancer treatment in key demographic groups.

A randomized trial of an education and support program for HIV infected individuals.

A randomized trial of an education and support program for HIV infected individuals.
AIDS 1995, vol. 9, no11, pp. 1271-1278 (37 ref.)

Cleary, P.D., Van Devanter, N., A. Stuart, M. Steilen, Shipton-Levy, R., W. McMullen, T. Rogers, E. Singer, Avorn, J. & J. Pindyck.
11/01/1995

Objectives : To assess the effectiveness of an intervention for providing information and support to HIV-positive donors on changes in their sexual behavior, and to assess which donor characteristics are predictive of behavior change. Design : Subjects were randomly assigned to a structured intervention or community referral group. Follow-up assessments were conducted every 6 months. Setting : New York City, New York, USA. Participants : A cohort of 271 HIV-infected persons who donated blood to the New York Blood Center. Intervention : Donors randomized to the structured intervention program met individually with a nurse for counseling and were offered a six-session support group. The program was designed to provide information, encourage safer sexual behavior and provide support. Main outcome measures : Sexual behavior, psychological distress and psychological help seeking, and immune function. Results : In both groups there was a large decrease over time in reports of unsafe sexual activity. However, more than 30% of participants in both groups reported unsafe sexual activity at the 1-year follow-up visit. Donors randomized to the structured intervention program did not report significantly more behavior change at the 1-year follow-up. Conclusions : Better programs to promote behavior change in seropositive individuals are needed.

"Mayoralty" and "City Council"

"Mayoralty" and "City Council"
Kenneth T. Jackson, editor, Encyclopedia of New York City, Yale University Press.

Brecher, C.
01/01/1995

New York City is the biggest, oldest, most crowded, most historic, most ethnically diverse metropolis in the United States. Perhaps because of its vastness, no one before has attempted to compile a reference work that embraces all its aspects. Now here is a book as varied and exciting and all encompassing as the city itself--the definitive reference work on New York City.

How Do Urban Communities Affect Youth? Using Social Science Research to Inform the Design and Evaluation of Comprehensive Community Initiatives

How Do Urban Communities Affect Youth? Using Social Science Research to Inform the Design and Evaluation of Comprehensive Community Initiatives
In J.P. Connell, A. Kubisch, L. Schorr, & C. Weiss (Eds.) New Approaches to Evaluating Comprehensive Community Initiatives: Concepts, Methods and Contexts, (pp. 93-125). Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and Families, The Aspen Institute.

Connell, J.P., Aber, J.L. & Walker, G.
01/01/1995

Preventable Hospitalizations and Access to Health Care

Preventable Hospitalizations and Access to Health Care
Journal of American Medical Association 274, no. 4 : 305-311.

Bindman, A., Grumbach, K., Osmond, D., Komaromy, M., Vranizan, K., Lurie, N. & Billings J.
01/01/1995

The objective is to examine whether the higher hospital admission rates for chronic medical conditions such as asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes in low-income communities resulted from community differences in access to care, prevalence of the diseases, propensity to seek care, or physician admitting style.

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