Housing & Community Development

Financial Management for Public, Health, and Not-for-Profit Organizations

Financial Management for Public, Health, and Not-for-Profit Organizations
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 672 pages.

Finkler, S.A.
01/01/2005

This is one of the only books available that addresses financial and managerial accounting within the framework of the three major areas of the public sector. Clear and comprehensive, Finkler's unique and accessible text provides the fundamentals of financial management for those who lack a financial background so that readers can access and apply financial information more effectively. Details the many aspects of strategic and budgetary planning. Outlines the processes involved in implementing and controlling results. Features aspects of accounting unique for Health Care, not-for-profit organizations and state and local governments. Explains balance sheets, operating and cash flow statements. Provides basic foundation for financial analysis. For managers and policy-makers in public service organizations who want to make more efficient use of their organization's financial information.

Rethinking Periodization? APD & the Macro-History of the United States

Rethinking Periodization? APD & the Macro-History of the United States
Polity 2005, Volume 37, Number 4.

Kersh, R.
01/01/2005

Dividing American history into discrete periods dates to the first European colonists in North America, several of whom variously declared their region or colony to represent a "new beginning" a "new land of Canaan," a New England, and so forth: "in the New World is born a new history," as one early sermonizer had it. (1) Soon thereafter clerics and political leaders (often the same people) lamented their fellows' fall from grace; the dichotomy of golden age and descent into depravity, of Awakening and backsliding, has been an American motif ever since. Eventually, the sweep of U.S. history was sorted on a chronological, rather than theological or eschatological, basis. For well over a century political historians have in the main hewn to a familiar temporal script.

The Redevelopment of Lower Manhattan: The Role of the City

The Redevelopment of Lower Manhattan: The Role of the City
The Contentious City: The Politics of Recovery in New York City edited by John Mollenkopf. Sage Foundation,

Moss, M.
01/01/2005

The attack on the World Trade Center reinforced a process of change in lower Manhattan that had been under way for at least the past fifty years. The public and private responses to the destruction wrought on September 11 have provided the funds, organizational capacity, and public commitment to do what a previous generation of municipal planners tried to accomplish, with only partial success: creating a mixed residential and office community in what was once New York City's dominant financial and business district. Federal aid to rebuild lower Manhattan has been the catalyst for modernizing and expanding its mass transit systems and facilities, providing low-cost financing for converting obsolete office buildings into housing, improving pedestrian movement, investing public funds in parks and cultural institutions, and subsidizing the creation of new public schools. This chapter examines the key public and private organizations that have shaped this redevelopment and the implications for the future of lower Manhattan and for office development in the rest of New York City.

Corporate – Community: Workforce Development Networks

Corporate – Community: Workforce Development Networks
Communities and Workforce Development. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute, December

Sutton, S.A.
12/01/2004

This paper examines employer perspectives on, and needs and expectations with respect to, building and sustaining collaborations with community-based organizations, as well as the usefulness of such collaborative relationships in creating opportunities for disadvantaged job seekers. The analysis is based on the examination of eight cases that are representative of a much larger group of very active corporations engaged in developing and sustaining workforce development programs. Particular attention is given to the level of corporate involvement with CBOs, which is referred to as external or corporate connectedness; and the level of internal corporate support for and integration of workforce development practices, which is their level of cohesiveness. Based on the analyses of these cases, I conclude that firms with high levels of connectedness and cohesiveness are more likely to provide “good” jobs—jobs that provide living wages, benefits, and the potential for upward mobility. By contrast, firms with low to moderate levels of connectedness and cohesiveness are more likely to provide entry-level jobs, with fairly low wages, low job security, and little mobility. This research fine-tunes Harrison and Weiss’s (1998) thesis about the importance of networks. Though optimal networks are both cohesive and connected, if we look at workforce development collaborations from an employer perspective, external connectedness seems to matter less than internal cohesiveness in producing good jobs for disadvantaged job seekers.

Attitudinal and contextual factors associated with discussion of sexual issues during adolescent health visits

Attitudinal and contextual factors associated with discussion of sexual issues during adolescent health visits
Journal of Adolescent Health 2004:35(2)108-115.

Merzel, C.R., Van Devanter, N., Middlestadt, S.E., Bleakley, A., Ledsky, R. & Messeri, P.A.
08/01/2004

The purpose was to examine attitudinal and contextual factors associated with the occurrence of sexual health assessments during adolescent primary care visits. A total of 313 primarily African-American youth aged 11-21 years from 16 community-based organizations in suburban Maryland and in New York City completed questionnaires focusing on sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and health care. The analysis examined the relationship of sexual activity, attitudes, and presence of the parent at the health care visit with discussion of three sexual health topics and testing for STD at the most recent health care visit. Data were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Overall, 74% of respondents reported that they had talked about at least one sexual health topic at their last health care visit but only 32% had discussed all three topics of sexual behavior, birth control, and STD. Females were more likely than males to discuss birth control although there were no gender differences in the overall likelihood of talking about a sexual health topic. Few adolescents initiated discussion of sexual issues. Positive attitudes toward discussing sexual issues with a provider and absence of a parent at the visit were independently associated with higher odds of discussing at least one sexuality topic and STD testing. Although relatively large numbers of adolescents in the sample received sexual health assessments, the proportion was below recommended guidelines. The opportunity to speak privately with a clinician and having positive attitudes about discussing sex with a doctor appear to be important influences on the receipt of sexual health assessments. Improving the quality of adolescent preventive care will require creating a health care environment that facilitates discussion of sexual health issues

District Effectiveness: A Study of Investment Strategies in New York City Public Schools and Districts

District Effectiveness: A Study of Investment Strategies in New York City Public Schools and Districts
Educational Policy, Vol. 18, No. 3, 491-512

Iatarola, P. & Fruchter, N.
07/01/2004

Educational reform over the past two decades has focused primarily on schools as the critical units of change, often ignoring the role of districts and their effect on schools' performance. Although national reform efforts such as the recently reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (the No Child Left Behind Act), are directed primarily at schools, local school districts are responsible for a number of functions critical to schooling effectiveness (e.g., hiring, collective bargaining, curriculum development, assessment, fiscal operations, and ancillary functions). Refocusing attention on districts and their effect on schools, this study found differences between high-and low performing community school districts, or administrative subunits, within the NewYork City school system in terms of educational goals, instructional focus, leadership development, teacher recruitment and retention, and professional development.

A Comparison of Ground-Level Air Quality Data with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Monitoring Stations Data in South Bronx, New York

A Comparison of Ground-Level Air Quality Data with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Monitoring Stations Data in South Bronx, New York
Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, pp. 5295-5304.

Restrepo, C., Zimmerman, R., Thurston, G., Clemente, J., Gorczynski, J., Zhong, M., Blaustin, M. & Chen, L.C.
01/01/2004

The South Bronx is a low-income, minority community in New York City. It has one of the highest asthma rates in
the country, which community residents feel is related to poor air quality. Community residents also feel that the air quality data provided by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) through its network
of monitoring stations do not reflect the poor quality of the air they breathe. This is due to the fact that these
monitoring stations are located 15m above ground. In the year 2001 this project collected air quality data at three
locations in the study area. They were collected close to ground-level at a height of 4m by a mobile laboratory placed in a van as part of the South Bronx Environmental Health and Policy Study. This paper compares data collected by the project with data from DEC's monitoring stations in Bronx County during the same periods. The goal of the comparison is to gain a better understanding of differences in measured air quality concentrations at these different heights. Although there is good agreement in the data among DEC stations there are some important differences between ground-level measurements and DEC data. For PM2.5 the measured concentrations by the van were similar to those recorded by DEC stations. In the case of ozone, the concentrations recorded at ground level were similar or lower than those recorded by DEC stations. For NO2, however, the concentrations recorded at ground level were over twice as high as those recorded by DEC. In the case of SO2, ground level measurements were substantially higher in August but very similar in the other two periods. CO concentrations measured at ground-level tend to be 60-90% higher than those recorded by DEC monitoring stations. Despite these differences, van measurements of SO2 and CO concentrations were well below EPA standards.

Academic Achievement Among Formerly Homeless Adolescents and Their Continuously Housed Peers

Academic Achievement Among Formerly Homeless Adolescents and Their Continuously Housed Peers
Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 179-199.

Rafferty, Y., Shinn, M. & Weitzman, B.
01/01/2004

This study examined the school experiences and academic achievement of 46 adolescents in families who experienced homelessness and 87 permanently housed adolescents whose families received public assistance. Measures taken after the homeless students were rehoused showed that both groups valued school highly and were similar in cognitive abilities assessed with the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC-R). Formerly homeless students had more school mobility, more grade retention, and worse school experiences by mother report and lower plans for post secondary education by self-report. Both groups scored poorly on standardized tests of academic achievement. Homelessness was associated with further declines in achievement during the period of maximal residential disruption, but did not have effects 5 years later.

City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer

City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick Netzer
Northampton, Mass: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.,

Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2004

In a festschrift to Netzer a public finance economist well known for his research on state and local taxation, urban public services, and nonprofit organizations eight chapters apply microeconomics to problems facing urban areas and use statistical analysis to gain insight into practical solutions. The essays look at alternative methods of financing urban government, such as a land value tax and the impact of sales and income taxes on property taxation; at government expenditures, including housing subsidies; and at subsidies to nonprofit arts groups as well as the role of the nonprofit sector in providing K-12 education. Of interest to the fields of public finance, urban economics, and public administration.

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City’s Youth: A Matter of Context

Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City’s Youth: A Matter of Context
Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 111-129.

Aber, J.L., E. Gershoff, A. Ware & J. Kotler.
01/01/2004

This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80% reported a lot of exposure to at least 1 form of media coverage of September 11th; these rates were comparable with the citywide survey of public school students in New York City conducted by the New York City Department of Education. Results of a structural equation model that included controls for previous levels of mental health and social attitudes, as well as a range of demographic factors, indicated that direct exposure and family exposure to the event did not predict change in any mental health outcomes, but did predict change in levels of social mistrust; media exposure did predict posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. In contrast, victimization by other forms of violence was strongly associated with change in or current levels of all of the examined mental health symptoms, whereas witnessing other forms of violence was associated with change in or levels of 3 of 4 mental health symptoms and with increased hostile attribution bias and levels of social mistrust. Implications of the results for applied developmental and public mental health strategies in response to traumatic events are discussed.

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