Inequality

Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana

Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana
Journal of Populations Economics 11 (4), December 1998, 471 - 493.

Morduch, J. Garg, A.
01/01/1998

When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana, we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters). The effects are as large as typical quantity-quality trade-offs, and they do not differ significantly by gender.

Marketing Racism: The Imperialism of Rationality, Critical Race Theory, and Some Interdisciplinary Lessons for Neoclassical Economics

Marketing Racism: The Imperialism of Rationality, Critical Race Theory, and Some Interdisciplinary Lessons for Neoclassical Economics
Virginia Journal of Social Policy and The Law, v. 5, n. 1 (1997)

Anthony M. Bertelli
01/01/1997

The Validity of Hospital Administrative Data in Monitoring Variations in Breast Cancer Surgery

The Validity of Hospital Administrative Data in Monitoring Variations in Breast Cancer Surgery
American J Public Health. 1996;86:243-245.

Kahn, L.H., Blustein, J., Arons, R.R., Yee, R.Y. & Shea, S.
01/01/1996

To assess the validity of using hospital administrative data to measure variations in surgery for early-stage breast cancer, ICD-9-CM coded information was compared with corresponding tumor registry data for 1293 breast cancer patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy at a tertiary referral center from January 1989 to October 1993. Relative to "gold standard" tumor registry data, the administrative data proved 83.4% sensitive and 80.4% specific in identifying women with localized disease who would be potential candidates for lumpectomy. The proportion of women with localized disease undergoing lumpectomy in groups defined by race and insurance status was nearly identical, whichever data were used. Administrative data, which is often readily and publicly available, may be useful in studying variations in breast cancer treatment in key demographic groups.

Access to Hospitals with High-Technology Cardiac Services: How is Race Important?

Access to Hospitals with High-Technology Cardiac Services: How is Race Important?
American J Public Health. 1995;85:345-351.

Blustein, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
01/01/1995

OBJECTIVES. Relatively few hospitals in the United States offer high-technology cardiac services (cardiac catheterization, bypass surgery, or angioplasty). This study examined the association between race and admission to a hospital offering those services. METHODS. Records of 11,410 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction to hospitals in New York State in 1986 were analyzed. RESULTS. Approximately one third of both White and Black patients presented to hospitals offering high-technology cardiac services. However, in a multivariate model adjusting for home-to-hospital distance, the White-to-Black odds ratio for likelihood of presentation to such a hospital was 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.42, 1.98). This discrepancy between the observed and "distance-adjusted" probabilities reflected three phenomena: (1) patients presented to nearby hospitals; (2) Blacks were more likely to live near high-technology hospitals; and (3) there were racial differences in travel patterns. For example, when the nearest hospitals did not include a high-technology hospital, Whites were more likely than Blacks to travel beyond those nearest hospitals to a high-technology hospital. CONCLUSIONS. Whites and Blacks present equally to hospitals offering high-technology cardiac services at the time of acute myocardial infarction. However, there are important underlying racial differences in geographic proximity and tendencies to travel to those hospitals.

The Dynamics of Economic Disadvantage and Children's Life Chances

The Dynamics of Economic Disadvantage and Children's Life Chances
American Sociological Review, Oct 2006, Vol. 71 Issue 5, p847-866, 20p.

Wagmiller Jr., R.L., Kuang, L., Aber, J.L., Lennon, M.C. & Alberti, P.M.
12/31/1969

Recent research suggests that child well-being and subsequent status attainment are influenced not only by the duration of exposure to economic disadvantage during childhood, but also by the timing and sequencing of exposure. Unfortunately, traditional measures of children's economic deprivation typically fail to differentiate between exposures to disadvantage at different stages in childhood and largely ignore how economic circumstances change over time. In this article, the authors propose a new method for assessing economic disadvantage during childhood that simultaneously captures children's overall levels of exposure to economic disadvantage as well as the timing and sequencing of their exposure. This new method uses finite mixture modeling to classify children into a limited number of classes with similar histories of exposure to economic disadvantage. With this new methodology, it is possible both to assess how family characteristics affect patterns of exposure to disadvantage and to directly test alternative theories about the effect that different patterns of exposure have on achievement. The authors find that extended exposure to economic deprivation during childhood is least favorable to early adulthood achievement, but that-at least for human capital formation-the timing and sequencing of poverty also are important.

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