Inequality

Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men from Blue Collar Jobs

Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men from Blue Collar Jobs
Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003

Royster, D.
01/01/2003

From the time of Booker T. Washington to today, and William Julius Wilson, the advice dispensed to young black men has invariably been, "Get a trade." Deirdre Royster has put this folk wisdom to an empirical test—and, in Race and the Invisible Hand, exposes the subtleties and discrepancies of a workplace that favors the white job-seeker over the black. At the heart of this study is the question: Is there something about young black men that makes them less desirable as workers than their white peers? And if not, then why do black men trail white men in earnings and employment rates? Royster seeks an answer in the experiences of 25 black and 25 white men who graduated from the same vocational school and sought jobs in the same blue-collar labor market in the early 1990s. After seriously examining the educational performances, work ethics, and values of the black men for unique deficiencies, her study reveals the greatest difference between young black and white men—access to the kinds of contacts that really help in the job search and entry process.

 

Racial and Ethnic Minorites Section Oliver Cromwell Cox Award, American Sociological Association

C. Wright Mills Award Finalist, Society for the Study of Social Problems

Income inequality, primary care, and health outcomes�a critical review of the literature

Income inequality, primary care, and health outcomes�a critical review of the literature
Medical Care Research and Review Volume 60 Number 4, pages 407-52.

Macinko, J., Shi, L., Starfield, B. & Wulu, J.
01/01/2003

This article critically reviews published literature on the relationship between income inequality and health outcomes. Studies are systematically assessed in terms of design, data quality, measures, health outcomes, and covariates analyzed. At least 33 studies indicate a significant association between income inequality and health outcomes, while at least 12 studies do not find such an association. Inconsistencies include the following: (1) the model of health determinants is different in nearly every study, (2) income inequality measures and data are inconsistent, (3) studies are performed on different combinations of countries and/or states, (4) the time period in which studies are conducted is not consistent, and (5) health outcome measures differ. The relationship between income inequality and health is unclear. Future studies will require a more comprehensive model of health production that includes health system covariates, sufficient sample size, and adjustment for inconsistencies in income inequality data.

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995

Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995
Stroke Volume 34 Number 8, pages 1958-64.

Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B. & Politzer, R.
01/01/2003

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to test whether primary care reduces the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. METHODS: This study used pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis of 11 years of state-level data (n=549). Analyses controlled for education levels, unemployment, racial/ethnic composition, and percent urban. Contemporaneous and time-lagged covariates were modeled. RESULTS: Primary care was negatively associated with stroke mortality in models including all covariates (P<0.0001). The impact of income inequality on stroke mortality was reduced in the presence of primary care (P<0.0001) but disappeared with the addition of covariates (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of social policy that addresses sociodemographic determinants of health, primary care promotion may serve as a palliative strategy for combating stroke mortality and reducing the adverse impact of income inequality on health.

Reader in Gender, Work and Organization

Reader in Gender, Work and Organization
Blackwell Publishers,

Ely, R., Foldy, E.G. & Scully, M.
01/01/2003

This reader uses an alternative approach to gender at work to provoke new thinking about traditional management topics, such as leadership and negotiation. Presents students with an alternative conceptual approach to gender in the workplace. Connects gender with other dimensions of difference such as race and class for a deeper understanding of diversity in organizations. Illustrates how traditional images of competence and the ideal worker result in narrow ways of thinking about work, limiting both opportunity and organizational effectiveness. Provokes new ways of thinking about leadership, human resource management, negotiation, globalization and organizational change.

Test Score Gaps in New York State Schools: What do Fourth and Eighth Grade Results Show?

Test Score Gaps in New York State Schools: What do Fourth and Eighth Grade Results Show?
Condition Report, Education Finance Research Consortium, New York State Education Department, Fall

Chellman, C., Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
01/01/2003

This report analyzes performance gaps by race/ethnicity, income and gender in New York State schools using fourth and eighth grade math and English language test results. Their results highlight the legacy of racial segregation where many schools have too few whites or non-whites to allow a meaningful calculation of the subgroup test performance or test score ‘gap’ between schools. Even with a minimum sub-group size of six, only 45.7% of elementary schools had enough whites or non-whites to calculate gaps. Findings indicate that the gaps do differ substantially; gaps between racially segregated schools are over 2.5 times greater than gaps in mixed schools.

The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States

The Health Care System Under French National Health Insurance: Lessons for Health Reform in the United States
The American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 93, No. 1.

Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2003

The French health system combines universal coverage with a public–private mix of hospital and ambulatory care and a higher volume of service provision than in the United States. Although the system is far from perfect, its indicators of health status and consumer satisfaction are high; its expenditures, as a share of gross domestic product, are far lower than in the United States; and patients have an extraordinary degree of choice among providers. Lessons for the United States include the importance of government’s role in providing a statutory framework for universal health insurance; recognition that piecemeal reform can broaden a partial program (like Medicare) to cover, eventually, the entire population; and understanding that universal coverage can be achieved without excluding private insurers from the supplementary insurance market.

The Starting Gate: Birth Weight and Life Chances

The Starting Gate: Birth Weight and Life Chances
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,

Conley, D., Strully, K. & Bennett, N.G.
01/01/2003

Seven percent of newborns in the United States weigh in at less than five and one half pounds. These "low birth weight" babies face challenges that others will never know--challenges that begin with a greater risk of infant mortality and extend well into adulthood in the form of health and developmental problems. Because low birth weight is often accompanied by social risk factors such as minority racial status, low education, young maternal age, and low income, the question of causes and consequences--of precisely how biological and social factors figure into this equation--becomes especially tricky to sort out. This is the question that The Starting Gate takes up, bringing a novel perspective to the nature-nurture debate by using the starting point of birth as a lens to examine biological and social inheritance. Seven percent of newborns in the United States weigh in at less than five and one half pounds. These "low birth weight" babies face challenges that others will never know--challenges that begin with a greater risk of infant mortality and extend well into adulthood in the form of health and developmental problems. Because low birth weight is often accompanied by social risk factors such as minority racial status, low education, young maternal age, and low income, the question of causes and consequences--of precisely how biological and social factors figure into this equation--becomes especially tricky to sort out. This is the question that The Starting Gate takes up, bringing a novel perspective to the nature-nurture debate by using the starting point of birth as a lens to examine biological and social inheritance.

What Frontline CBO Staff Can Tell Us About Culturally Anchored Theories of Change in HIV Prevention for Asian/Pacific Islanders

What Frontline CBO Staff Can Tell Us About Culturally Anchored Theories of Change in HIV Prevention for Asian/Pacific Islanders
American Journal of Community Psychology,Volume 32, pp. 143-158.

Yoshikawa, H., Wilson, P.A., Hsueh, J., Rosman, E.A., Kim, J. & Chin, J..
01/01/2003

Few rigorously tested primary prevention programs have been developed to prevent HIV infection among immigrant communities in the United States. This is in part because of the lack of culturally specific behavioral theories that can inform HIV prevention for immigrant communities in the United States. This article aims to develop such theories for a population—Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) immigrant communities—who have been overlooked in theory development and program evaluation. Frontline community-based organization (CBO) peer educators, an underutilized source of expertise regarding cultural factors specific to HIV infection among A/PI communities, are the sample of study Asian/Pacific Islander peer educators working at an urban AIDS service organization devoted to health promotion for this population; (N=35). They were interviewed to examine (1) detailed narratives describing instances of behavior change and (2) culturally anchored theories of behavior change which the narratives imply. Theories of the influence of positive cultural symbols on the taboo of HIV/AIDS, moderators of the effectiveness of social network influences on behavior change, and setting- and community-level processes predicting HIV risk behavior were implicit in the peer educators' narratives. Implications for future research, methodology and prevention practice are discussed

Which 'Broken Windows' Matter? School, Neighborhood, and Family Characteristics Associated with Youth's Feelings of Unsafety

Which 'Broken Windows' Matter? School, Neighborhood, and Family Characteristics Associated with Youth's Feelings of Unsafety
Journal of Urban Health, Volume 80, Number 3, pages 400-415.

Mijanovich, T. & Weitzman, B.C.
01/01/2003

Young people’s fears of victimization and feelings of unsafety constitute a serious and pervasive public health problem and appear to be associated with different factors than actual victimization. Our analysis of a population-based telephone survey of youths aged 10–18 years in five economically distressed cities and their suburbs reveals that a substantial minority of youths feel unsafe on any given day, and that an even greater number feel unsafe in school. While some traditional predictors of victimization (such as low socioeconomic status) were associated with feeling unsafe, perceived school disorder was the major factor associated with such feelings. Disorderliness may thus be the school’s version of “broken windows,” which serve to signal to students a lack of consistent adult concern and oversight that can leave them feeling unsafe. We suggest that fixing the broken windows of school disorderliness may have a significant, positive impact on adolescents’ feelings of safety.

The World Cities Project: Rationale, Organization, and Design for Comparison of Megacity Health Systems

The World Cities Project: Rationale, Organization, and Design for Comparison of Megacity Health Systems
Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 4, December

Rodwin, V.G. & Gusmano, M.K.
12/01/2002

This article provides an overview of the World Cities Project (WCP), our rationale for it, our framework for comparative analysis, and an overview of current studies in progress. The WCP uses New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo as a laboratory in which to study urban health, particularly the evolution and current organization of public health infrastructure, as well as the health status and quality of life in these cities. Comparing world cities in wealthier nations is important because of (1) global trends in urbanization, emerging health risks, and population aging; (2) the dominant influence of these cities on “megacities” of developing nations; and (3) the existence of data and scholarship about these world cities, which provides a foundation for comparing their health systems and health. We argue that, in contrast to nation-states, world cities provide opportunities for more refined comparisons and cross-national learning. To provide a framework for WCP, we define an urban core for each city and examine the similarities and differences among them. Our current studies shed light on inequalities in health care use and health status, the importance of neighborhoods in protecting population health, and quality of life in diverse urban communities.

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