Beyond Black: Diversity among Black Immigrant Students in New York City Public Schools

Beyond Black: Diversity among Black Immigrant Students in New York City Public Schools
Randy Capps and Michael Fix, editors, Young Children of Black Immigrants in America: Changing Flows, Changing Faces. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute: 299-331

Doucet, F., Schwartz, A. E., & Debraggio, E.

The child population in the United States is rapidly changing and diversifying — in large part because of immigration. Today, nearly one in four US children under the age of 18 is the child of an immigrant. While research has focused on the largest of these groups (Latinos and Asians), far less academic attention has been paid to the changing Black child population, with the children of Black immigrants representing an increasing share of the US Black child population.

To better understand a unique segment of the child population, chapters in this interdisciplinary volume examine the health, well-being, school readiness, and academic achievement of children in Black immigrant families (most with parents from Africa and the Caribbean).

The volume explores the migration and settlement experiences of Black immigrants to the United States, focusing on contextual factors such as family circumstances, parenting behaviors, social supports, and school climate that influence outcomes during early childhood and the elementary and middle-school years.  Many of its findings hold important policy implications for education, health care, child care, early childhood development, immigrant integration, and refugee assistance.

Changes in ten years of social inequalities in health among elderly Brazilians (1998-2008)

Changes in ten years of social inequalities in health among elderly Brazilians (1998-2008)
Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 46, supp. 1. 10.1590/S0034-89102012005000059

Lima-Costa, M.F.; L.A. Facchini; D.L. Matos, and J. Macinko

OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes in income-related inequalities in health conditions and in the use of health services among elderly Brazilians.

METHODS: Representative samples of the Brazilian population aged 60 years and more were analyzed between 1998 and 2008 (n = 27,872 and 41,198, respectively), derived from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey). The following variables were considered in this study: per capita monthly household income, self-rated health, physical functioning, medical consultations and hospitalizations in the previous 12 months and exclusive use of the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System). Data analysis was based on estimates of prevalence and prevalence ratios obtained with robust Poisson regression.

RESULTS: In 1998 and 2008, the prevalence of poor self-rated health, mobility limitations and inability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), adjusted for age and sex, showed strong gradients associated with per capita household income quintiles, with the lowest values being found among those in the lowest income quintile. The prevalence ratios adjusted for age and sex between the lowest quintile (poorest individuals) and highest quintile (richest individuals) of income remained stable for poor self-rated health (PR = 3.12 [95%CI 2.79;3.51] in 1998 and 2.98 [95%CI 2.69;3.29] in 2008), mobility limitations (PR = 1.54 [95%CI 1.44;1.65 and 1.69 [95%CI 1.60;1.78], respectively) and inability to perform ADLs (PR = 1.79 [95%CI 1.52;2.11] and 2.02 [95%CI 1.78;2.29], respectively). There was a reduction in income-related disparities when three or more medical consultations had been made and with the exclusive use of the Unified Health System. Inequalities were not observed for hospitalizations. 

CONCLUSIONS: Despite reductions in income-related inequalities among indicators of use of health services, the magnitude of disparities in health conditions has not decreased. Longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the persistence of such inequalities among elderly Brazilians.

Do Federally Assisted Households Have Access to High Performing Public Schools?

Do Federally Assisted Households Have Access to High Performing Public Schools?
Poverty & Race Research Action Council

Ellen, Ingrid Gould and Horn, Keren Mertens.

A family’s housing unit provides more than simply shelter. It also provides a set of neighborhood amenities and a package of local public services, including, most critically, a local school. Yet housing and education policymakers rarely coordinate their efforts, and there has been little examination of the schools that voucher holders or other assisted households actually reach. In this project we describe the elementary schools nearest to households receiving four different forms of housing assistance in the country as a whole, in each of the 50 states, and in the 100 largest metropolitan areas.We compare the characteristics of these schools to those accessible to other comparable households. We pay particular attention to whether voucher holders are able to reach neighborhoods with higher performing schools than other low-income households in the same geographic area.


In brief, we find that assisted households as a whole are more likely to live near low-performing schools than other households. Surprisingly, Housing Choice Voucher holders do not generally live near higher performing schools than households receiving other forms of housing assistance, even though the voucher program was created, in part, to help low-income households reach a broader range of neighborhoods and schools. While voucher holders typically live near schools that are higher performing than those nearest to public housing tenants, they also typically live near schools that are slightly lower performing than those nearest to households living in Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) and Projectbased Section 8 developments and lower performing than those nearest to other poor households.

Residential Mobility and the Reproduction of Unequal Neighborhoods

Residential Mobility and the Reproduction of Unequal Neighborhoods
Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 2012. Volume 14, Number 3

Sharkey, P.

Housing assistance policy has shifted away from project-based assistance toward tenantbased assistance. This shift in approach reflects a common assumption that, if families have the option to find homes on their own in the private market, they will seek out better quality homes in racially diverse neighborhoods with lower levels of poverty. This article presents evidence to qualify this assumption by highlighting the limits of residential mobility in reducing, in any substantive way, the degree of racial and ethnic inequality in urban America. Two empirical observations form the basis of the argument. The first observation is that residential mobility typically serves to reproduce urban inequality instead of disrupting it. The second is that urban inequality is resilient: even when individuals or families make moves that disrupt patterns of racial and ethnic inequality, the changes such moves induce are undermined by system-level processes that serve to reproduce inequality in the urban landscape. As a result, changes in families’ neighborhood environments arising from residential mobility are often temporary and are diluted by subsequent changes occurring around families. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for housing assistance policy.

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in Older Adults in Brazil and England

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in Older Adults in Brazil and England
American Journal of Public Health: August 2012, Vol. 102, No. 8, pp. 1535-1541. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300765

Lima-Costa, M.F., C. De Oliveira, J. Macinko, and M. Marmot

Objectives. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in health among older adults in England and Brazil.

Methods. We analyzed nationally representative samples of residents aged 50 years and older in 2008 data from the Brazilian National Household Survey (n = 75 527) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 9589). We estimated prevalence ratios for self-rated health, functional limitations, and reported chronic diseases, by education level and household income tertiles.

Results. Brazilians reported worse health than did English respondents. Country-specific differences were higher among the poorest, but also affected the wealthiest persons. We observed a strong inverse gradient of similar magnitude across education and household income levels for most health indicators in each country. Prevalence ratios (lowest vs highest education level) of poor self-rated health were 3.24 in Brazil and 3.50 in England; having 2 or more functional limitations, 1.81 in Brazil and 1.96 in England; and having 1 or more diseases, 1.14 in Brazil and 1.36 in England.

Conclusions. Socioeconomic inequalities in health affect both populations, despite a less pronounced absolute difference in household income and education in Brazil than in England.

Horizontal Equity in Health Care Utilization in Brazil, 1998–2008

Horizontal Equity in Health Care Utilization in Brazil, 1998–2008
International Journal for Equity in Health, Vol. 11 no. 33. 10.1186/1475-9276-11-33

Macinko, J., and M.F. Lima Costa

Introduction This study assesses trends in horizontal equity in the utilization of healthcare services from 1998 to 2008--a period of major economic and social change in Brazil.

Methods Data are from nationally representative surveys repeated in 1998, 2003, and 2008. We apply established methods for assessing horizontal inequity in healthcare access (the principle that people with the same healthcare needs should have similar access to healthcare services). Horizontal inequity is calculated as the difference between observed healthcare utilization and utilization predicted by healthcare needs. Outcomes examined include the probability of a medical, dental, or hospital visit during the past 12 months; any health service use in the past two weeks; and having a usual source of healthcare. We use monthly family income to measure differences in socioeconomic position. Healthcare needs include age, sex, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Non-need factors include income, education, geography, health insurance, and Family Health Strategy coverage.

Results The probability of having at least one doctor visit in the past 12 months became substantially more equitable over time, ending with a slightly pro-rich orientation in 2008. Any hospitalization in the past 12 months was found to be pro-poor in all periods but became slightly less so in 2008. Dental visits showed the largest absolute decrease in horizontal inequity, although they were still the most inequitably (pro-rich) distributed outcome in 2008. Service use in the past two weeks showed decreased inequity in 2003 but exhibited no significant change between 2003 and 2008. Having a usual source of care became less pro-rich over time and was nearly income-neutral by 2008. Factors associated with greater inequities include income, having a private health plan, and geographic location. Factors associated with greater equity included health needs, schooling, and enrolment in the Family Health Strategy.

Conclusions Healthcare utilization in Brazil appears to have become increasingly equitable over the past 10 years. Although this does not imply that equity in health outcomes has improved correspondingly, it does suggest that government policies aimed at increasing access, especially to primary care, have helped to make healthcare utilization in Brazil fairer over time.

The Socio-economic Empowerment Assessment: Addressing poverty and economic distress in clients

The Socio-economic Empowerment Assessment: Addressing poverty and economic distress in clients
Clinical Social Work Journal, 40(2), 194 – 202.

Hawkins, R. L., & Kim, E. J.

In this paper, we introduce the Socio-Economic Empowerment Assessment (SEEA), a qualitative assessment that uses an ecological framework to better understand the psychological impact of poverty and financial insecurity. The assessment is designed as a practice tool and can be administered in a number of clinical settings, including agencies most likely to serve low-income populations. It can also be included as part of financial literacy or management sessions that social work agencies may offer. This paper explores how SEEA can be used to help develop specific and appropriate interventions that move low-income people and others toward economic empowerment. We examine the literature on financial literacy programs and theories on behavior regulation and social relationships related to consumption. A case study using an integrative assessment approach is included as an example of SEEA implementation.

Behavioral Foundations of Microcredit: Experimental and Survey Evidence from Rural India

Behavioral Foundations of Microcredit: Experimental and Survey Evidence from Rural India
American Economic Review 102 (2), April 2012: 1118-1139.

Bauer, Michal; Julie Chytilová; and Jonathan Morduch

We use experimental measures of time discounting and risk aversion for villagers in south India to highlight behavioral features of microcredit, a financial tool designed to reduce poverty and fix credit market imperfections. The evidence suggests that microcredit contracts may do more than reduce moral hazard and adverse selection by imposing new forms of discipline on borrowers. We find that, conditional on borrowing from any source, women with present-biased preferences are more likely than others to borrow through microcredit institutions. Another particular contribution of microcredit may thus be to provide helpful structure for borrowers seeking self-discipline.

Do interest rates matter? Credit demand in the Dhaka Slums

Do interest rates matter? Credit demand in the Dhaka Slums
Journal of Development Economics, 97(2): 437-449

Dehejia, Rajeev; Heather Montgomery and Jonathan Morduch

“Best practice” in microfinance holds that interest rates should be set at profit-making levels, based on the belief that even poor customers favor access to finance over low fees.  Despite this core belief, little direct evidence exists on the price elasticity of credit demand in poor communities.  We examine increases in the interest rate on microfinance loans in the slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh.  Using unanticipated between-branch variation in prices, we estimate interest elasticities from -0.73 to -1.04, with our preferred estimate being at the upper end of this range. Interest income earned from most borrowers fell, but interest income earned from the largest customers increased, generating overall profitability at the branch level. 

Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis

Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis
In William Tate, Ed., Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility. Rowman and Littlefield Publishing. 2012, pp. 67-82.

Ellen, I.G., O'Regan, K., Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.

Racial segregation in America's schools remains persistently and disturbingly high, despite decades of institutional and policy changes. This paper considers one recent change common to many urban school districts - immigration - and examines whether and how the presence of a large number of immigrant students affects racial segregation. Exploiting a student-level data set including all elementary and middle school students in New York City's public schools, sixteen percent of whom are immigrants, we conduct a series of descriptive and exploratory analysis of possible avenues of influence. While it is unclear ex ante, both theoretically and compositionally, whether the presence of immigrants should increase or decrease inter-racial interaction, our results point to a decrease. Racial stratification of foreign-born students is generally higher than that of their native-born counterparts, and this is not solely attributable to income or language-skill differences. And while this heightened segregation decreases with time in the school system, the foreign-born/native-born differential is never eliminated. Importantly, we do find that there are very large differences within the immigrant population. Thus, the effect of immigrants on patterns of racial interaction in any district will depend crucially not only on the race of the immigrants, but also on their particular country of origin.


Subscribe to Inequality