Labor

Building Job Quality from the Inside-Out: Immigrants, Skill, and Jobs in the Construction Industry

Building Job Quality from the Inside-Out: Immigrants, Skill, and Jobs in the Construction Industry
Industrial Labor Relations Review. 66(4): 785-807.

Iskander, N. and N. Lowe
07/01/2013

Using an ethnographic case study of Mexican immigrant construction workers in two U.S. cities and in Mexico, the authors illustrate the contribution of immigrant skill as a resource for changing workplace practices. As a complement to explanations that situate the protection of job quality and the defense of skill to external institutions, the authors show that immigrants use collective learning practices to improve job quality from inside the work environment—that is to say from the inside-out. The authors also find that immigrants use collective skill-building practices to negotiate for improvements to their jobs; however, their ability to do so depends on the institutions that organize production locally. Particular attention is given to the quality of those industry institutions, noting that where they are more malleable, immigrant workers gain more latitude to alter their working conditions and their prospects for advancement.

Migration and development, global South / Mexico-Morocco

Migration and development, global South / Mexico-Morocco
I. Ness, ed. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Wiley Blackwell

Iskander, N.
02/04/2013

In recent years, the relationship between migration and development has received renewed attention, and analysts, policy-makers, and development experts have returned to the question of how to use emigration to foster economic growth in countries and communities of origin. The main thrust of this inquiry has focused on how to use remittances – the monies that migrants send back home – to support economic activity (de la Garza & Orozco 2002; Orozco 2002; Munzele Maimbo & Ratha 2005; Ratha 2005). However, among countries with high emigration rates, a handful of governments have expanded their emphasis past remittances to create policies that link emigration and development in a more comprehensive way (Castles & Delgado Wise 2008). Morocco and Mexico feature prominently among them. Both countries have policies to link emigration with local and national economic transformation that reach beyond a narrow focus on remittances, and that, more importantly, are creative, participatory, and dynamic (Iskander 2010). At their outset, however, the policies were as single-minded in their focus on remittances as any of the more mercenary examples of today.

State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 32(3): 536-53.

Smith, Daniel L., and Jeffrey B. Wenger.
01/01/2013

This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with more highly solvent trust funds. This result holds after controlling for state-level unemployment rate, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population growth, legislative political ideology, partisan control of the executive and legislative branches, and gubernatorial election year across multiple specifications, including fixed-effects and dynamic panel estimators. We propose a theory of moderate coupling as the causal mechanism, whereby UI program benefits and financing are directly related but are not as tightly linked as in other social insurance programs, such as Medicaid. The findings have important policy implications for the funding of states’ UI systems. As a consequence of moderate coupling, the countercyclicality of the UI program is dampened. 

The 2013 Federal Budget's Impact on Communities of Color and Low-Income Families

The 2013 Federal Budget's Impact on Communities of Color and Low-Income Families

Women of Color Policy Network
02/23/2012

The Obama administration's budget proposal for fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) strengthens the national economy by investing in schools, communities and safety net programs. The FY 2013 budget also includes a number of important investments in infrastructure that will spur much needed job growth in a time of economic uncertainty for many working and low-income families. It is critical that such investments take into account the persistently high unemployment in communities of color, and target spending to increase the economic security of the communities most impacted by the "Great Recession." Additionally, the budget includes important changes to the tax code that will lay the foundation for a fairer and more equitable economy.

Above Board: Raising the Standards for Passenger Service Workers at the Nation's Busiest Airports

Above Board: Raising the Standards for Passenger Service Workers at the Nation's Busiest Airports

Mason, C. Nicole & Garcia, Lisette
02/01/2012

I n the fall of 2011, the Women of Color Policy Network at New York University's Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service conducted a survey of over 300 passenger service workers at the region's three major airports: LaGuardia, Kennedy International and Newark Liberty International.
Only workers contracted by the airlines were surveyed. This report focuses on the impact of the low-bid
contracting system on passenger service workers at the airports. It also proposes ways forward and concrete recommendations to raise job quality and performance standards for companies contracted directly with airlines.

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy

Women of Color Policy Network
08/01/2011

After decades of slow, but steady economic progress, the Great Recession of 2007-2009 erased many of the previous gains made by Blacks in the labor market. Black unemployment rates have consistently climbed since the recession was declared officially over in 2009, peaking at 16.5 percent in 2010. Employed Black workers, in turn, are disproportionately represented in low-wage, low-skill industries and occupations that offer minimal benefits or opportunities for career advancement. This policy brief provides a snapshot of how Black workers are faring in the labor market and poses policy recommendations for building the long-term economic security of Black workers, their families, and communities.

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Wage Disparities and Women of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
04/01/2011

More women are becoming the primary wage earners in households across the country, yet men continue earn higher wages than women. Occupational segmentation and unequal access to wealth lead to exponentially growing career income gaps for women. This brief explores the policy implications of recent Census data revealing that women earn 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. With Black women and Hispanic women earning even less, targeted policy solutions must incorporate opportunities for women in low-income and marginalized communities. Policies will contribute to greater wage equity if they incorporate: pay check fairness; the extension of paid sick leave benefits to caregivers; and increased access to labor market, child care, and educational opportunities for low-income women.

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