Labor

New Measures of Pension Knowledge

New Measures of Pension Knowledge
with Ann Huff Stevens. Working paper. Prepared for the 2006 meeting of The Society of Labor Economics.

Chan, S.
04/01/2006

This paper uses self-reports of pension information from multiple waves of the Health and Retirement Study to examine the consistency, completeness and accuracy of pension knowledge. Previous work examining individual’s knowledge of their pensions has relied on comparisons of employer-provided pension plan documents and self-reported pension plan components. Particularly for defined contribution pension plans, such comparisons may be misleading if the employer-reports are considered to be proxies for the true pension values. We show that patterns of pension reporting across time is consistent with substantial misinformation, but that pension information does seem to improve significantly immediately prior to separating from one’s job. Conditional on reporting a value for defined benefit income or defined contribution account balances, individuals are reasonably consistent in their reports taken just before and after leaving a job.

Effects of Anti-Poverty and Employment Policies on Middle-Childhood School Performance: Do They Vary by Race/Ethnicity, and If So, Why?

Effects of Anti-Poverty and Employment Policies on Middle-Childhood School Performance: Do They Vary by Race/Ethnicity, and If So, Why?
In A.C. Huston & M. Ripke (Eds.), Middle childhood: Contexts of development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Yoshikawa, H., Morris, P.A., Gennetian, L.A., Roy, A.L., Gassman-Pines, A. & Godfrey, E.B..
01/01/2006

This chapter considers whether effects of antipoverty policy on children's school performance differ by ethnicity, and if so, why. We explore several hypotheses: those that derive from human capital theory, theories about family structure and family process, and person-environment fit theory. A major finding is that, in addition to the role of human capital, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that person-environment fit matters. That is, the fit between policy contexts and personal values and goals, such as motivation to pursue one's own education, appears to play a role in explaining differences by race and ethnicity in effects of welfare and employment policies on children.

Is Retirement Being Remade? Developments in Labor Market Patterns at Older Ages

Is Retirement Being Remade? Developments in Labor Market Patterns at Older Ages
Managing Retirement Payouts edited by John Amerikis and Olivia Mitchell.

Chan, S.
01/01/2006

As Baby Boomers make the transition into their 60s, they have focused policymakers and the media's attention onto how this generation will manage the retirement phase of its lifetime. This volume acknowledges that many, though not all, in this older cohort have accumulated substantial assets, so for them, the question is what will they do with what they have?

We offer a detailed exploration of how people entering retirement will deploy their accumulated assets in the near and long term, so to best meet their myriad spending, investment, and other objectives. The book offers readers an invaluable study of emerging issues regarding assets and expectations on the verge of retirement, including uncertainty regarding life expectancy and morbidity. It is composed of chapters from a distinguished set of authors including a Nobel Laureate and a wonderful mix of academics and practitioners from the legal, financial, and economic fields.

 

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx

The Role of Faith-Based Institutions in Providing Health Education and Promoting Equal Access to Care: A Case Study of an Initiative in the Southwest Bronx
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006; 17.2: 9-19.

Kaplan S.A., Calman, N.S., Golub M., Davis J.H. & Billings, J.
01/01/2006

Although many public health initiatives have been implemented through collaborations with faith-based institutions, little is known about best practices for developing such programs. Using a community-based participatory approach, this case study examines the implementation of an initiative in the Bronx, New York, that is designed to educate community members about health promotion and disease management and to mobilize church members to seek equal access to health care services. The study used qualitative methods, including the collaborative development of a logic model for the initiative, focus groups, interviews, analysis of program reports, and participant observation. The paper examines three key aspects of the initiative’s implementation: (1) the engagement of the church leadership; (2) the use of church structures as venues for education and intervention; and (3) changes in church policies. Key findings include the importance of pre-existing relationships within the community and the prominent agenda-setting role played by key pastors, and the strength of the Coalition’s dual focus on health behaviors and health disparities. Given the churches’ demonstrated ability to pull people together, to motivate and to inspire, there is great potential for faith-based interventions, and models developed through such interventions, to address health disparities.

Black-White Differences in Occupational Prestige: Their Impact on Child Development

Black-White Differences in Occupational Prestige: Their Impact on Child Development
American Behavioral Scientist, May 2005; 48: 1229 - 1249.

Conley D. & Yeung, J.
05/01/2005

This article examines whether differences in parental occupational prestige mediate or moderate race differences in four indicators of child development—reading scores, math scores, Behavior Problems Index, and health status—using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement. The authors find that although for behavioral problems there is no impact of parental occupational prestige, for reading, math, and health there are significant academic returns to parental occupational prestige, but only for White families. The authors hypothesize that this racially distinct dynamic may be a result of ongoing discrimination in the labor market, thereby reducing the association between ability (job and parenting) and prestige; or it may be a result of the difficulty of Blacks to translate occupational prestige gains into other benefits as a result of discrimination outside the labor market; or finally, it may be the result of a generational lag between occupational status and parenting practices.

The Use of Logic Models by Community-Based Initiatives

The Use of Logic Models by Community-Based Initiatives
Evaluation and Program Planning 2005; 28:167-172

Kaplan, S.A. & Garrett, K.E.
03/11/2005

Many grant programs now require community-based initiatives to develop logic models as part of the application process or to facilitate program monitoring and evaluation. This paper examines three such programs to understand the benefits and challenges of using logic models to help build consensus and foster collaboration within a community coalition, strengthen program design, and facilitate internal and external communication. The paper concludes with recommendations for how to make the logic model development process more useful for community-based initiatives.

Contextual Competence: Multiple Manifestations Among Urban Adolescents

Contextual Competence: Multiple Manifestations Among Urban Adolescents
American Journal of Community Psychology. Mar Vol. 35, Iss. 1-2; p. 65

Pedersen, S., Seidman, E., Rivera, A., Allen, L. & Aber, J.L.
03/01/2005

The authors develop and validate multidimensional and contextual profiles of competence among low-income, urban, middle adolescents (N = 560). The assessment of contextual competence was based on youth self-reports of involvement, performance, and relationship quality in the peer, school, athletic, employment, religious, and cultural contexts. A principal components analysis of these engagement indices revealed the six expected components with the addition of a component labeled self-in-context. To identify holistic, multidimensional profiles of contextual competence, scores along the seven domains were cluster analyzed. Nine clusters emerged, each representing a distinct constellation of youth experience. Profiles were associated with demographic variables and youth adjustment. Profiles reflecting high engagement in two or more contexts predicted higher self-esteem and lower depression. In contrast, profiles marked by high engagement in the contexts of athletics or employment predicted more serious delinquency. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for future research and intervention.

The European Union through an American Prism

The European Union through an American Prism
The State of the European Union, Vol. 7: With US or Against US? Edited by Nicolas Jabko & Craig Parsons. Oxford University Press.

Kersh, R.
01/01/2005

The USA is deeply implicated in European dreams of a more perfect union. This chapter investigates three aspects of the European-American nexus. First, it focuses on the striking gap between politics and administration in contemporary Europe, and reflects on the implications for democracy. Second, it examines recent tensions between the USA and European governments, arguing that the source goes far deeper than the bare-knuckles diplomacy of the current Bush Administration. Finally, it examines the early history of US national unity as a model for European efforts.

Corporate – Community: Workforce Development Networks

Corporate – Community: Workforce Development Networks
Communities and Workforce Development. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute, December

Sutton, S.A.
12/01/2004

This paper examines employer perspectives on, and needs and expectations with respect to, building and sustaining collaborations with community-based organizations, as well as the usefulness of such collaborative relationships in creating opportunities for disadvantaged job seekers. The analysis is based on the examination of eight cases that are representative of a much larger group of very active corporations engaged in developing and sustaining workforce development programs. Particular attention is given to the level of corporate involvement with CBOs, which is referred to as external or corporate connectedness; and the level of internal corporate support for and integration of workforce development practices, which is their level of cohesiveness. Based on the analyses of these cases, I conclude that firms with high levels of connectedness and cohesiveness are more likely to provide “good” jobs—jobs that provide living wages, benefits, and the potential for upward mobility. By contrast, firms with low to moderate levels of connectedness and cohesiveness are more likely to provide entry-level jobs, with fairly low wages, low job security, and little mobility. This research fine-tunes Harrison and Weiss’s (1998) thesis about the importance of networks. Though optimal networks are both cohesive and connected, if we look at workforce development collaborations from an employer perspective, external connectedness seems to matter less than internal cohesiveness in producing good jobs for disadvantaged job seekers.

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