Management

Evidence Based Financial Management

Evidence Based Financial Management
Healthcare Financial Management, October

Finkler, S.A., Henley, R.J. & Ward, D.M.
10/01/2003

Focuses on the importance of evidence-based financial management of hospitals in the U.S. Concept behind evidenced-based financial management; Mechanics of an evidence-based financial management; Benefits provided by this type of financial management; Financial implications if this type of financial management is used.

Functional Outcomes of Pediatric Liver Transportation

Functional Outcomes of Pediatric Liver Transportation
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 37(2), 155-60.

Alonso, E.M. Neighbors, K., Mattson, C., Sweet, E., Ruch-Ross, H., Berry, C. & Sinacore, J.
08/01/2003

The functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children who survive liver transplantation (LT) have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional status and HRQOL in this population using a validated measure for children, the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50).

Methods: The CHQ-PF50 instrument was completed by the parents of 55 children who agreed to participate in a mailing survey. Subscale scores for the sample were compared with those of a published normal population (n = 391).

Results: Study sample characteristics were: 87% Caucasian, 54.5% female, mean age at survey was 9.6 years (range, 5-17 years). Responding caregivers were 95% biologic parents and 93% female. Compared with the normal population, LT recipients had lower subscale scores for general health perceptions (P < 0.0005), emotional impact on parents (<0.0005) and disruption of family activities (0.0005). The mean physical summary score of the LT recipients was lower than that of the normal population 48.1 /- 12.1 (P = 0.005), but the mean psychosocial summary score was similar 48.8 /- 11.9 (P = 0.156). Within the LT population, the original diagnosis (biliary atresia vs. other), type of LT (living donor vs. cadaveric), age at LT, z score for height, and hospital days did not significantly influence any of the subscale scores.

Conclusions: Children who have survived LT have functional outcomes in the physical domain that are lower than those of normal children. Self-esteem and mental health in this group appeared normal. The parents in this sample experienced more emotional stress and disruption of family activities than did parents in a normal population.

Understanding Cooperative Behavior in Labor Management Cooperation: A Theoy-Building Exercise

Understanding Cooperative Behavior in Labor Management Cooperation: A Theoy-Building Exercise
Public Administration Review, July 2003, vol.63, no.4, pp. 455-471(17) Blackwell Publishing Inc.

Ospina, S.
07/01/2003

This article proposes a theory of how mandated institutional cooperation transforms into individual cooperative behavior. Using qualitative strategies, we draw insights about cooperation in three public-sector efforts of labor-management cooperation (LMC). We report an association between critical shifts in the roles of stakeholders and the change from adversarial to cooperative labor relations. While managers became team players along with their employees, labor representatives assumed managerial responsibilities. These changes were also associated with a service-oriented perspective, better understanding of the other's experiences, and a view of cooperation as partnership. At the heart of these transformations, we found critical changes in communication patterns associated with incrementally growing levels of trust. We propose a model that depicts the links between collective and individual levels of organizational action related to LMC. We conclude that the positive shifts in mental models regarding work and the value of cooperation justify the promotion of LMC efforts.

A Nonprofit Organization

A Nonprofit Organization
in Ruth Towse, editor, A Handbook of Cultural Economics. Cheltenham, U.K. and Nothhampton, MA: Edward Elgar,

Netzer, D.
01/01/2003

In all rich countries, firms organized on a not-for-profit basis produce cultural goods and services, along with for-profit firms (including independent professional artists) and the state. This is also true in many poorer countries. Non-profit firms are defined as organizations that have a formal structure and governance, which differ greatly among countries but share the characteristics that (1) the managers of the organization do not own the enterprise or have an economic interest that can be sold to other firms or individuals and (2) any surplus of revenue over expenditure may not be appropriated by the managers of the organization, but must be reinvested in ways that further the stated purposes of the organization. Obviously, such organizations will not be formed and continue to exist unless the organizers and managers expect and realize some economic rewards, including money compensation for their own services and non-financial rewards like consumption benefits (producing cultural goods and services that they want to enjoy but which will not be produced without their efforts) and personal status.

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference
Health Care Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 319-322.

Kovner, A.R.
01/01/2003

Highlights the "Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research," conference held in New York City on January 23-24, 2003. Generating research funding; Barriers to using management research; Overcoming barriers to funding.

Better than Raw: A Guide to Measuring Organizational Performance with Adjusted Performance Measures

Better than Raw: A Guide to Measuring Organizational Performance with Adjusted Performance Measures
Public Administration Review,

Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R. & Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2003

Like oysters on the half shell, some things are better when they're raw. In evaluating the performance of organizations and providing guidance for improving performance, however, raw performance measures, such as test scores or success rates, are often inferior to performance measures adjusted for client and environmental characteristics, or adjusted performance measures (APMs). Using examples from a variety of public services and data on public schools in Georgia, we compare the performance data generated by raw scores and by APMs. We conclude with guidance for constructing and using adjusted performance measures.

Development and Validation of a Brief Pediatric Screen for Asthma and Allergies Among Children

Development and Validation of a Brief Pediatric Screen for Asthma and Allergies Among Children
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 90, 500-507.

Wolf, R.L., Berry, C. & Quinn, K.
01/01/2003

Background: Asthma is the most common disease of childhood, but the recognition and detection remain poor, especially among schoolchildren. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to detect the risk of asthma earlier in children. We have previously validated a simple, self-reported screen, the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen (BPAS).

Objective: To develop a new screen for asthma and allergies based on the BPAS (BPAS ) with the intent of keeping the screen brief and simple, while including allergy detection.

Methods: Questions from the BPAS were extensively revised, and questions regarding allergic rhinitis were added. A panel of parents of asthmatic children reviewed and critiqued the questions. The final BPAS was distributed in elementary schools, and a cohort of 129 participated in a validation against the gold standard of evaluation by an expert in asthma.

Results: For asthma the best items were wheeze, persistent cough, night cough, and response to change in air temperature. The simplest scoring, any 1 of the 4 items, yielded the best balance of specificity (73.6%) and sensitivity (73.3%). For allergy, using all six items, having any one or any two of the items had sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 77.3%.

Conclusions: The BPAS provides a rapid and valid method for the detection of potential allergy and asthma in schoolchildren. Sensitivity and specificity are acceptable for both asthma and allergies.

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