Management

A Nonprofit Organization

A Nonprofit Organization
in Ruth Towse, editor, A Handbook of Cultural Economics. Cheltenham, U.K. and Nothhampton, MA: Edward Elgar,

Netzer, D.
01/01/2003

In all rich countries, firms organized on a not-for-profit basis produce cultural goods and services, along with for-profit firms (including independent professional artists) and the state. This is also true in many poorer countries. Non-profit firms are defined as organizations that have a formal structure and governance, which differ greatly among countries but share the characteristics that (1) the managers of the organization do not own the enterprise or have an economic interest that can be sold to other firms or individuals and (2) any surplus of revenue over expenditure may not be appropriated by the managers of the organization, but must be reinvested in ways that further the stated purposes of the organization. Obviously, such organizations will not be formed and continue to exist unless the organizers and managers expect and realize some economic rewards, including money compensation for their own services and non-financial rewards like consumption benefits (producing cultural goods and services that they want to enjoy but which will not be produced without their efforts) and personal status.

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference

Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research: Report of a Conference
Health Care Management Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 319-322.

Kovner, A.R.
01/01/2003

Highlights the "Agenda Setting for Health Care Management Research," conference held in New York City on January 23-24, 2003. Generating research funding; Barriers to using management research; Overcoming barriers to funding.

Better than Raw: A Guide to Measuring Organizational Performance with Adjusted Performance Measures

Better than Raw: A Guide to Measuring Organizational Performance with Adjusted Performance Measures
Public Administration Review,

Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R. & Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2003

Like oysters on the half shell, some things are better when they're raw. In evaluating the performance of organizations and providing guidance for improving performance, however, raw performance measures, such as test scores or success rates, are often inferior to performance measures adjusted for client and environmental characteristics, or adjusted performance measures (APMs). Using examples from a variety of public services and data on public schools in Georgia, we compare the performance data generated by raw scores and by APMs. We conclude with guidance for constructing and using adjusted performance measures.

Development and Validation of a Brief Pediatric Screen for Asthma and Allergies Among Children

Development and Validation of a Brief Pediatric Screen for Asthma and Allergies Among Children
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 90, 500-507.

Wolf, R.L., Berry, C. & Quinn, K.
01/01/2003

Background: Asthma is the most common disease of childhood, but the recognition and detection remain poor, especially among schoolchildren. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to detect the risk of asthma earlier in children. We have previously validated a simple, self-reported screen, the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen (BPAS).

Objective: To develop a new screen for asthma and allergies based on the BPAS (BPAS ) with the intent of keeping the screen brief and simple, while including allergy detection.

Methods: Questions from the BPAS were extensively revised, and questions regarding allergic rhinitis were added. A panel of parents of asthmatic children reviewed and critiqued the questions. The final BPAS was distributed in elementary schools, and a cohort of 129 participated in a validation against the gold standard of evaluation by an expert in asthma.

Results: For asthma the best items were wheeze, persistent cough, night cough, and response to change in air temperature. The simplest scoring, any 1 of the 4 items, yielded the best balance of specificity (73.6%) and sensitivity (73.3%). For allergy, using all six items, having any one or any two of the items had sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 77.3%.

Conclusions: The BPAS provides a rapid and valid method for the detection of potential allergy and asthma in schoolchildren. Sensitivity and specificity are acceptable for both asthma and allergies.

Distinguishing Good Schools from Bad in Principle and Practice: A Comparison of Four Methods

Distinguishing Good Schools from Bad in Principle and Practice: A Comparison of Four Methods
in Developments in School Finance 2003, National Center for Education Statistics.

Schwartz, A.E., Rubenstein, R., Stiefel, L. & Bel Hadj Amor, H.
01/01/2003

For over a decade, perhaps no other issue in education has generated the same level of debate and policy activity as school accountability. At their most basic, accountability policies tie school rewards and sanctions to measures of school performance, typically specified as either performance levels (for example, aggregate percentile ranks or the percentage of students meeting specified benchmarks) or changes in performance (for example, increases in aggregate test scores or in the percentage of students meeting benchmarks). While most accountability efforts have been enacted at the state and local level, the peak of this movement may be the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, which requires states to demonstrate adequate yearly progress in reading and mathematics performance by school and by subgroups within schools. Common to these reform efforts is the underlying notion that incentives based upon measures of school performance will spur improvements in student performance.

Diversity

Diversity
Jack Rabin (ed). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Marcel Decker: New York,

Ospina, S.
01/01/2003

Public agencies have the mandate to consider the plurality of values, concerns and voices of the larger population in their work, as well as to include a wide variety of citizens in their workforce. When diversity is pursued as an organizational objective, more efficient management and the democratic values of responsiveness and representation in public administration are both said to be better achieved.

Effect of Communications Training on Medical Student Performance

Effect of Communications Training on Medical Student Performance
Journal of the American Medical Association, 290 , pp. 1157-1165. [and editorial comment, pp. 1210-1212.]

Yedidia, M.J., Gillespie, C.C., Kachur, E., Schwartz, M.D., Ockene, J., Chepaitis, A.E…. & Lipkin, M.
01/01/2003

Although physicians' communication skills have been found to be related to clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, teaching of communication skills has not been fully integrated into many medical school curricula or adequately evaluated with large-scale controlled trials. This study concluded that communications curricula using an established educational model significantly improved third-year students' overall communications competence as well as their skills in relationship building, organization and time management, patient assessment, and negotiation and shared decision making-tasks that are important to positive patient outcomes.

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times

Enacting Labor Management Cooperation: New Competencies for the New Times
in Jonathan Brock and David B. Lipsky (ed.) Going Public: The Role of Labor-Management Relations in Delivering Quality Government Services. Champaign, Illinois: Industrial Relations Research Association. 2003, pp. 137-170.

Ospina, S. & Yaroni, A.
01/01/2003

The public sector currently employs around 40 percent of all union members in the United States. Pressures for cost-effective and quality government services have placed new demands on the labor-management relationship. A fluctuating set of expectations about the appropriate responsibilities of government and a shifting political culture are severely testing the ability of the public sector to meet demands for increased accountability and expanded services. Especially in an age of knowledge workers, the traditional division between labor and management regarding leadership and work may no longer be viable. Going Public examines the forces affecting labor and management and the prospects for adopting service-oriented cooperative relationships as a key strategy for meeting the expanded demands on the public sector.

Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas (Outcome Evaluation for a Modern and Democratic Public Management: Latin American Experiences)

Evaluación de Resultados para una Gestión Pública Moderna y Democrática. Experiencias Latinoamericanas (Outcome Evaluation for a Modern and Democratic Public Management: Latin American Experiences)
Venezuela: CLAD - Editorial Texto, C.A.

Cunill, N. & Ospina, S.
01/01/2003

 

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