Management

A Government Ill Executed: The Decline of the Federal Service and How to Reverse It

A Government Ill Executed: The Decline of the Federal Service and How to Reverse It
Harvard University Press,

Light, P.C.
05/01/2008

The federal government is having increasing difficulty faithfully executing the laws, which is what Alexander Hamilton called "the true test" of a good government. This book diagnoses the symptoms, explains their general causes, and proposes ways to improve the effectiveness of the federal government. Employing Hamilton's seven measures of an energetic federal service, Paul Light shows how the government is wanting in each measure.

After assessing the federal report card, Light offers a comprehensive agenda for reform, including new laws limiting the number of political appointees, reducing the layers of government management, reducing the size of government as its baby-boom employees retire, revitalizing the federal career, and reducing the heavy outsourcing of federal work. Although there are many ways to fix each of the seven problems with government, only a comprehensive agenda will bring the kind of reform needed to reverse the overall erosion of the capacity to faithfully execute all the laws.

 

Jump-Starting Collaboration: The ABCD Initiative and the Provision of Child Development Services through Medicaid and Collaborators

Jump-Starting Collaboration: The ABCD Initiative and the Provision of Child Development Services through Medicaid and Collaborators
Public Administration Review, May 2008, Vol. 68 Issue 3, p480-490, 11p.

Berry, C., Krutz, G.S., Langner, B. & Budetti, P.
05/01/2008

Many policy problems require governmental leaders to forge vast networks beyond their own hierarchical institutions. This essay explores the challenges of implementation in a networked institutional setting and incentives to induce coordination between agencies and promote quality implementation. It describes the national evaluation of the Assuring Better Child Health and Development program, a state-based program intended to increase and enhance the delivery of child development services for low-income children through the health care sector, using Medicaid as its primary vehicle. Using qualitative evaluation methods, the authors found that all states implemented programs that addressed their stated goals and made changes in Medicaid policies, regulations, or reimbursement mechanisms. The program catalyzed interagency cooperation and coordination. The authors conclude that even a modest level of external support and technical assistance can stimulate significant programmatic change and interorganizational linkages within public agencies to enhance provision of child development services.

Race/Ethnicity and Patient Confidence to Self-manage Cardiovascular Disease

Race/Ethnicity and Patient Confidence to Self-manage Cardiovascular Disease
Medical Care. 2008; 46(9):924-9

Blustein, J., Valentine, M., Mead, H. & Regenstein, M.
04/01/2008

Background: Minority populations bear a disproportionate burden of chronic disease, due to higher disease prevalence and greater morbidity and mortality. Recent research has shown that several factors, including confidence to self-manage care, are associated with better health behaviors and outcomes among those with chronic disease.

Objective: To examine the association between minority status and confidence to self-manage cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Study Sample: Survey respondents admitted to 10 hospitals participating in the Expecting Success program, with a diagnosis of CVD, during January-September 2006 (n = 1107).

Results: Minority race/ethnicity was substantially associated with lower confidence to self-manage CVD, with 36.5% of Hispanic patients, 30.7% of Black patients, and 16.0% of white patients reporting low confidence (P < 0.001). However, in multivariate analysis controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical severity, minority status was not predictive of low confidence.

Conclusions: Although there is an association between race/ethnicity and confidence to self-manage care, that relationship is explained by the association of race/ethnicity with socioeconomic status and clinical severity.

Who Is Accountable for Racial Equity in Health Care?

Who Is Accountable for Racial Equity in Health Care?
Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 299 No.7, February 20: 814-816.

Blustein, J.
02/20/2008

Racial disparities are a ubiquitous feature of the US medical landscape, with health care delivery substantially segregated by race/ethnicity. Recent evidence from hospitals,1-3 nursing homes,4-5 and physicians' offices6 suggests that those caring for minority patients do not perform as well as those who care for nonminority patients, on average. This evidence is troubling but hardly surprising because the limited resources of those who care for the poor have helped to create and sustain racial disparities. As the United States enters an era of accountability in health care, it is time to consider these familiar circumstances from a new perspective.

Analysis of Electrical Power and Oil and Gas Pipeline Failures

Analysis of Electrical Power and Oil and Gas Pipeline Failures
Critical Infrastructure Protection, edited by E.D. Goetz and S. Shenoi. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 381-394.

Simonoff, J.S., Restrepo, C., Zimmerman, R. & Naphtali, Z.
01/01/2008

This paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of failures in three critical infrastructure systems in the United States: the electrical power grid, hazardous liquids (including oil) pipelines, and natural gas pipelines. The analyses are carried out at the state level, though the analytical frameworks are applicable to other geographic areas and infrastructure types. The paper also discusses how understanding the spatial distribution of these failures can be used as an input into risk management policies to improve the performance of these systems, as well as for security and natural hazards mitigation.

Equity and Accountability: The Impact of State Accountability Systems on School Finance

Equity and Accountability: The Impact of State Accountability Systems on School Finance
Journal of Public Budgeting & Finance, 28 (3): 1-22

Rubenstein, R. & Ballal, S., Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2008

Using an 11-year panel data set containing information on revenues, expenditures, and demographics for every school district in the United States, we examine the effects of state-adopted school accountability systems on the adequacy and equity of school resources. We find little relationship between state implementation of accountability systems and changes in school finance equity, though we do find evidence that states in which courts overturned the school finance system during the decade exhibited significant equity improvements. Additionally, while implementation of accountability per se does not appear linked to changes in resource adequacy, states that implemented strong accountability systems did experience improvements.

Health and Disease in Global Cities: A Neglected Dimension of National Health Policy

Health and Disease in Global Cities: A Neglected Dimension of National Health Policy
Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City. Edited by Keil, R. and H. Ali. Oxford University Press,

Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2008

A collection of writings by leading experts and newer researchers on the SARS outbreak and its relation to infectious disease management in progressively global and urban societies.

Health Care Delivery in the United States

Health Care Delivery in the United States
New York, Springer, 9th edition,

Kovner, A.R. & Johnas, S. (eds.).
01/01/2008

How do we understand and also assess the health care of America? Where is health care provided? What are the characteristics of those institutions which provide it? Over the short term, how are changes in health care provisions affecting the health of the population, the cost of care, and access to care? Health Care Delivery in the United States, 8 th Edition discusses these and other core issues in the field. Under the editorship of Dr. Kovner and with the addition of Dr. James Knickman, Senior VP of Evaluation, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, leading thinkers and practitioners in the field examine how medical knowledge creates new healthcare services. Emerging and recurrent issues from wide perspectives of health policy and public health are also discussed. With an easy to understand format and a focus on the major core challenges of the delivery of health care, this is the textbook of choice for course work in health care, the handbook for administrators and policy makers, and the standard for in-service training programs.

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