The Search for Social Entrepreneurship

The Search for Social Entrepreneurship
Brookings Institution Press

Light, P.C.

Research on social entrepreneurship is finally catching up to its rapidly growing potential. In The Search for Social Entrepreneurship, Paul Light explores this surge of interest to establish the state of knowledge on this growing phenomenon and suggest directions for future research. Light begins by outlining the debate on how to define social entrepreneurship, a concept often cited and lauded but not necessarily understood. A very elemental definition would note that it involves individuals, groups, networks, or organizations seeking sustainable change via new ideas on how governments, nonprofits, and businesses can address significant social problems. That leaves plenty of gaps, however, and without adequate agreement on what the term means, we cannot measure it effectively. The unsatisfying results are apple-to-orange comparisons that make replication and further research difficult. The subsequent section examines the four main components of social entrepreneurship: ideas, opportunities, organizations, and the entrepreneurs themselves. The copious information available about each has yet to be mined for lessons on making social entrepreneurship a success. The third section draws on Light’s original survey research on 131 high-performing nonprofits, exploring how they differ across the four key components. The fourth and final section offers recommendations for future action and research in this burgeoning field.

Improving The Management Of Care For High- Cost Medicaid Patients

Improving The Management Of Care For High- Cost Medicaid Patients
Health Affairs, Nov/Dec 2007, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p1643-1655, 13p.

Billings, J. & Mijanovich, T.

The article discusses the improvement of care management for high-cost Medicaid patients. It explores on Medicaid budgets which have prompted policymakers to redouble efforts to explore ways of boosting efficiency in care delivery, particularly for people with high-cost and chronic conditions. It also illustrates John Billings and Tod Mijanovich's article which examines the cost-effectiveness of care management for chronic disease patients treated in fee-for-service practice. The authors present an algorithm that identifies patients at high risk of future hospitalizations and offer a business-case analysis about the rate of reduction in future hospitalization and the cost of the intervention.

Options for Budget Reform in New York State

Options for Budget Reform in New York State
Citizens Budget Commission, October

Brecher, C. & CBC Staff.

This background paper focuses on the greater accountability and transparency in fiscal decision making. It has been prepared to inform discussion among the participants at the first CBC agenda setting conference, scheduled for September 20, 2007. The paper is organized into three sections. The first is a definition of the problem; it defines in some detail the limited accountability and transparency that have characterized the New York State budget process in past years. The second section describes the progress made in addressing these problems during recent legislative sessions, focusing particularly on the 2007 session. The last section describes options that can be pursed in 2008 and subsequently to make even more substantial progress. The options are not all mutually exclusive, but they are relatively numerous. Conference participants are asked to review these options for discussion in the forum on September 20. The views expressed by experts attending the forum will be considered in the preparation of a final document that will summarize recommended actions for State leaders.

A Prescription for Getting the MTA on the Right Fiscal Track

A Prescription for Getting the MTA on the Right Fiscal Track
The Stamford Review, Fall, pp. 27-24.

Brecher, C. & Mustovic, S.

Typically when an asset is acquired it is assigned a "useful life" representing the amount of time it can be expected to stay in use. Then a fraction of the asset's purchase price, equal to one year of its "useful life," is counted as an annual expenditure called depreciation. The MTA's depreciation schedules are based upon estimated useful lives of 25 to 50 years for buildings, two to 40 years for equipment, and 25 to 100 years for infrastructure. Most subway cars are depreciated over 30 years and buses over 12 years. Setting aside money equal to the value of depreciation, known as "funding depreciation," is a way of ensuring that an organization has adequate capital to replace assets at the end of their useful life. In contrast, failing to fund depreciation enables an organization to meet its cash expenses each year without having a budget that is balanced under generally accepted accounting principles. However, the adverse consequence of this practice is a shortage of capital and a resulting need to borrow in order to replace depreciated assets. This is the path the MTA routinely takes.

Notes from the Field: Jumpstarting the IRB Approval Process in Multicenter Studies

Notes from the Field: Jumpstarting the IRB Approval Process in Multicenter Studies
Health Services Research, Volume 42, Number 4, August 2007 , pp. 1773-1782(10) Blackwell Publishing.

Blustein, J., Regenstein, M., Seigel, B. & Billings, J.

Objective. To identify strategies that facilitate readiness for local Institutional Review Board (IRB) review, in multicenter studies.

Study Setting. Eleven acute care hospitals, as they applied to participate in a foundation-sponsored quality improvement collaborative.

Study Design. Case series.

Data Collection/Extraction. Participant observation, supplemented with review of written and oral communications.

Principal Findings. Applicant hospitals responded positively to efforts to engage them in early planning for the IRB review process. Strategies that were particularly effective were the provisions of application templates, a modular approach to study description, and reliance on conference calls to collectively engage prospective investigators, local IRB members, and the evaluation/national program office teams. Together, these strategies allowed early identification of problems, clarification of intent, and relatively timely completion of the local IRB review process, once hospitals were selected to participate in the learning collaborative.

Conclusions. Engaging potential collaborators in planning for IRB review may help expedite and facilitate review, without compromising the fairness of the grant-making process or the integrity of human subjects protection.

Fiscal Decentralization and Intergovernmental Relations in Developing Countries: Navigating a Viable Path to Reform

Fiscal Decentralization and Intergovernmental Relations in Developing Countries: Navigating a Viable Path to Reform
G. Shabbir Cheema and Dennis Rondinelli (eds) Decentralized Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practice, Washington, DC: Brookings,

Smoke, P.

The trend toward greater decentralization of governance activities, now accepted as commonplace in the West, has become a worldwide movement. Today s world demands flexibility, adaptability, and the autonomy to bring those qualities to bear. In this thought-provoking book, the first in a new series on Innovations in Governance, experts in government and public management trace the evolution and performance of decentralization concepts, from the transfer of authority within government to the sharing of power, authority, and responsibilities among broader governance institutions.

The contributors to Decentralizing Governance assess emerging concepts such as devolution and capacity building; they also detail factors driving the decentralization movement such as the ascendance of democracy, economic globalization, and technological progress. Their analyses range across many regions of the world and a variety of contexts, but each specific case explores the objectives of decentralization and the benefits and difficulties that will likely result.


Financial Management for Nurse Managers and Executives

Financial Management for Nurse Managers and Executives
3rd Edition, W.B. Saunders/Elsevier, Spring

Finkler, S.A., Kovner, C.T. & Jones, C.

Covering the financial topics all nurse managers need to know and use, this book explains how financial management fits into the healthcare organization. You'll study accounting principles, cost analysis, planning and control management of the organization's financial resources, and the use of management tools. In addition to current issues, this edition also addresses future directions in financial management.

Civic Engagement & National Belonging

Civic Engagement & National Belonging
International Journal of Public Administration and Management .

Kersh, R.

In his essay “All Community Is Local,” political scientist William Schambra urges that researchers and activists “direct our gaze away from the failed project of national community and focus once again on the churches, voluntary associations, and grass-roots groups that are rebuilding America’s civil society one family, one block, one neighborhood at a time.” Schambra’s is a rather extreme version of a view expressed by many theorists of citizenship, as well as by political figures from both right and left: that the nation is too distant from most people’s lives (or its governing officials too impersonal or corrupt) to inspire a sense of shared purposes or civic spirit. Only intense local involvement yields rightly-constituted citizens, and small communities are the likeliest realm for realizing the public good.[1]


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