Management

Measuring Equity and Adequacy in School Finance

Measuring Equity and Adequacy in School Finance
Handbook of Research in Education Finance and Policy. Edited by Ladd, Helen F. and Ted Fiske. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, New York,

Downes, T. & Stiefel, L.
01/01/2007

The Handbook traces the evolution of the field from its initial focus on school inputs (per pupil expenditures) and the revenue sources (property taxes, state aid programs, etc) used to finance these inputs to a focus on educational outcomes (student achievement) and the larger policies used to achieve them. It shows how the current decision-making context in school finance inevitably interacts with those of governance, accountability, equity, privatization, and other areas of education policy. Because a full understanding of the important contemporary issues requires inputs from a variety of perspectives, the Handbook draws on contributors from a variety of disciplines.

Emotional ties that bind: The roles of valence and consistency of group emotion in inferences of cohesiveness and common fate

Emotional ties that bind: The roles of valence and consistency of group emotion in inferences of cohesiveness and common fate
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Magee, J.C. & Tiedens L. Z.
12/01/2006

In three studies, observers based inferences about the cohesiveness and common fate of groups on the emotions expressed by group members. The valence of expressions affected cohesiveness inferences, whereas the consistency of expressions affected inferences of whether members have common fate. These emotion composition effects were stronger than those due to the race or sex composition of the group. Furthermore, the authors show that emotion valence and consistency are differentially involved in judgments about the degree to which the group as a whole was responsible for group performance. Finally, it is demonstrated that valence-cohesiveness effects are mediated by inferences of interpersonal liking and that consistency-common fate effects are mediated by inferences of psychological similarity. These findings have implications for the literature on entitativity and regarding the function of emotions in social contexts.

Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender

Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 42, No. 3, 350-372.

Foldy, E.G.
09/01/2006

Recent scholarship has shown that, despite the broad representation of women in the workplace, gender inequities in organizations remain widespread. Because gender schema ”embedded ways of thinking about men and women” contribute to this phenomenon, addressing such mental models should be a part of gender equity initiatives. This article provides data that suggest that some individuals hold within themselves quite contradictory schemas of men and of women. It then illustrates how individuals can use these internal inconsistencies to push through superficial understandings of gender to more complex ones. By facilitating this learning process in training and other kinds of organizational events, change agents can strengthen organizational efforts to achieve gender equity.

Power Plays

Power Plays
Negotiation, Jul 2006, p1-4, 4p.

Galinsky, A.D.
07/01/2006

The article presents information on the role of power in negotiation. Power could generate competition or conflict in negotiations, however, effective channelization of power helps in bringing the win-win situation to both the parties. Social psychologists have described power as lack of dependence on others. Individuals possessing power tend to have the approach related to the behavior that includes positive mood or searching for rewards in their environment. On the other hand, powerless individuals show a great deal of self-inhibition and fear towards potential threats. INSETS: WOMEN: INCREASE YOUR POWER AT THE TABLE;POWER ACROSS CULTURES.

Disaster Forensics: Leveraging Crisis Information Systems for Social Science

Disaster Forensics: Leveraging Crisis Information Systems for Social Science
Proceedings of the Third International ISCRAM Conference edited by R Van De Walle and M Turroff. Newark Institute of Technology, May

Moss, M. & Townsend, A.
05/01/2006

This paper contributes to the literature on information systems in crisis management by providing an overview of
emerging technologies for sensing and recording sociological data about disasters. These technologies are transforming our capacity to gather data about what happens during disasters, and our ability to reconstruct the social dynamics of affected communities. Our approach takes a broad review of disaster research literature, current research efforts and new reports from recent disasters, especially Hurricane Katrina and the Indian Ocean Tsunami. We forecast that sensor networks will revolutionize conceptual and empirical approaches to research in the social sciences, by providing unprecedented volumes of high-quality data on movements, communication and response activities by both formal and informal actors. We conclude with a set of recommendations to designers of crisis management information systems to design systems that can support social science research, and argue for the inclusion of post-disaster social research as a design consideration in such systems.

Medicaid in New York: Why New York’s Program is the Most Expensive in the Nation and What to Do About It

Medicaid in New York: Why New York’s Program is the Most Expensive in the Nation and What to Do About It
Citizens Budget Commission, April

Brecher, C., Lynam, E. & Spiezio, S.
04/01/2006

This report makes the case that it is possible to lower Medicaid expenditures by about $5.8 billion annually, without reducing the program's effectiveness in helping low-income New Yorkers obtain needed care. These significant savings are feasible by addressing the three main areas where New York's program differs drastically from those of other states:

New York extends Medicaid eligibility to the non-poor or middle class for longterm
care.
New York pays some institutional providers, specifically hospitals, nursing homes
and institutions for the disabled, at rates above competitive costs.
New York allows excessive use of some types of services, specifically personal care
and inpatient hospital care.

This report describes these differences and makes three recommendations to bring New York's program more in line with national norms:

Limit Medicaid eligibility to the poor.
Reduce payment rates to competitive levels.
Reduce excessive use of personal care and hospital inpatient care.

 

Old Assumptions, New Realities: The Truth About Wages and Retirement Benefits for Government Employees

Old Assumptions, New Realities: The Truth About Wages and Retirement Benefits for Government Employees
Citizens Budget Commission, April

Brecher, C., Lynam, E. & Spiezio, S.
04/01/2006

Most government workers are paid more than their private sector counterparts, so more generous and expensive
retirement benefits are no longer justified.

Public Authorities in New York State.

Public Authorities in New York State.
Citizens Budget Commission, April

Brecher, C. & Brill, J.
04/01/2006

Public authorities play a major role in delivering public services. They supplement direct government agencies in three ways:

• Provide a business-like organizational structure for public services that are financed primarily by user fees and whose capital investments are self-financed through bonds supported by user fees.
• Provide a stewardship for major capital assets and make long-run investment decisions with some isolation from pressures of the electoral cycle.
• Provide a mechanism for taking advantage of federal tax benefits for economic development and other purposes that otherwise would be treated as private activities.

Authorities are intended to strike a balance between political accountability and political independence. Unlike heads of direct government agencies, governing boards of authorities are expected to be more independent of those who appoint them, to make difficult and unpopular decisions outside the arena of elected politics, and to be accountable to the public indirectly through reporting, transparency in decision-making and long-run performance. New York State makes extensive use of public authorities.

 

 

Fostering Organizational Change Through a Community-Based Initiative

Fostering Organizational Change Through a Community-Based Initiative
Health Promotion Practice 2006; 7:1-10.

Kaplan S.A., Calman N.S., Golub M., Ruddock C. & Billings J.
01/01/2006

Program funders and managers are increasingly interested in fostering changes in the policies, practices, and procedures of organizations participating in community-based initiatives. But little is know about what factors contribute to the institutionalization of change. In this study, we assess whether the organizational members of the Bronx Health REACH Coalition have begun to change their functioning and role with regard to their clients, their staff, and in the broader community, apart from their implementation of the funded programs for which they are responsible. The study identifies factors that seemed to contribute to or hinder such institutional change, and suggests several strategies for coalitions and funders that are seeking to promote and sustain organizational change.

Power and Perspectives Not Taken

Power and Perspectives Not Taken
Psychological Science, Dec 2006, Vol. 17 Issue 12, p1068-1074, 7p, 1 bw

Galinksy A.D., Magee, J.C., Inesi, M.E. & Gruenfeld, D.H.
01/01/2006

Four experiments and a correlational study explored the relationship between power and perspective taking. In Experiment 1, participants primed with high power were more likely than those primed with low power to draw an E on their forehead in a self-oriented direction, demonstrating less of an inclination to spontaneously adopt another person's visual perspective. In Experiments 2a and 2b, high-power participants were less likely than low-power participants to take into account that other people did not possess their privileged knowledge, a result suggesting that power leads individuals to anchor too heavily on their own vantage point, insufficiently adjusting to others' perspectives. In Experiment 3, high-power participants were less accurate than control participants in determining other people's emotion expressions; these results suggest a power-induced impediment to experiencing empathy. An additional study found a negative relationship between individual difference measures of power and perspective taking. Across these studies, power was associated with a reduced tendency to comprehend how other people see, think, and feel.

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