Poverty

From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development

From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development
Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization/WHO. .

Rodriguez-Garcia, R., Macinko, J. & Casas, J. (Eds.)
01/01/1998

Civil, political and military conflict--Natural and man-made disasters--Poverty and human suffering...As the new millennium approaches, the need for humanitarian assistance in response to these global challenges endures. Complex humanitarian emergencies demand human, financial and material resources on an international scale. This presents the global community, and particularly the health sector, with a formidable and daunting task: Faced with limited resources, how can organizations and actors simultaneously meet immediate humanitarian needs while maintaining their commitment to long term human development? More specifically, how can humanitarian relief and sustainable human development efforts be linked? From Humanitarian Assistance to Human Development responds and reacts to this question by serving as a forum for distinguished members of the health and development arena to present issues, policies and innovative programs in response. Divided into three sections, the book examines the humanitarian assistance-human development continuum within the global-policy context of human development, reviews humanitarian assistance as a social phenomena, highlights country experiences in Rwanda and Bosnia, and discusses means of relieving human suffering and restoring infrastructure and health and social services in the aftermath of conflict. In this thought-provoking, informative volume, the perspectives, experiences and proposals of specialists from academic institutions, national and international agencies and non-governmental organizations are united to help inform future policy, inspire programmatic action and, ultimately, bridge the gap between humanitarian assistance and human development.

Predictors of Homelessness from Shelter Request to Housing Stability Among Families in New York City

Predictors of Homelessness from Shelter Request to Housing Stability Among Families in New York City
American Journal of Public Health, 88:11, pp. 1651-57.

Shinn, M., Weitzman, B.C., Stojanovic, D., Knickman, J.R., Jimenez, L., Duchon, L., James, S. & Krantz, D.H.
01/01/1998

This study examined predictors of entry onto shelter and subsequent housing stability for a cohort of families receiving public assistance in New York City. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 266 families as they requested shelter and with a comparison sample of 298 families selected at random from the welfare caseload. Respondents were reinterviewed 5 years later. Families with prior history of shelter use were excluded from the follow-up study. Results. Demographic characteristics and housing conditions were the most important risk factors for shelter entry; enduring poverty and disruptive social experiences also contributed. Five years later, four fifths of sheltered families had their own apartment. Receipt of subsidized housing was the primary predictor of housing stability among formerly homeless families (odd ratio [OR] = 20.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 9.9, 42.9). Conclusions. Housing subsidies are critical to ending homelessness among families.

Preventable Hospitalizations and Socioeconomic Status

Preventable Hospitalizations and Socioeconomic Status
Health Affairs. 1998;17:177-189.

Blustein, J., Hanson, K. & Shea, S.
01/01/1998

"Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance.

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment
Urban Studies, Jun98, Vol. 35 Issue 7, p1187-1205, 19p, 8 charts, 3 graphs, 1 map

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1998

This paper synthesises a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It broadens the focus beyond transport and the 'friction of space' and expands the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking 'access' to youth labour market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data relating access to employment outcomes for black youth at the metropolitan level. Access is broadly defined to include traditional measures of geographical distance, as well as measures of social isolation or social access. Metropolitan areas in which the black poor are more spatially isolated are also found to have higher black youth unemployment rates. The second body of evidence relies on the same type of metropolitan measures, combined with individual data on youth living with at least one parent. When individual and family characteristics are controlled for, and white and Hispanic youth are also considered, metropolitan measures of social access exert distinguishable effects upon youth employment-youth living in urban areas in which they have less residential contact with whites or the non-poor are less likely to be employed. The final piece of analysis links the individual records of such youth to tract-level measures of access, both social (neighbourhood composition variables) and geographical (job-access measures). This is accomplished through the creation of a unique data set at the Bureau of the Census. Again, after controlling for individual and family characteristics, the residential conditions of youth affect their employment. Ceteris paribus, youth living in census tracts with fewer employed adults, with fewer whites, and which are further from jobs are less likely to be employed. Results suggest that the overall effects of space on employment outcomes are substantial, explaining 10-40 per cent of the observed racial differences in employment in...

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households
Journal of Human Resources, Summer 1996, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p692-702, 11p, 3 charts

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1996

This paper tests the importance of the spatial isolation of minority and poverty households for youth employment in large metropolitan areas. We estimate a model relating youth employment probabilities to individual and family characteristics, race, and metropolitan location. We then investigate the determinants of the systematic differences in employment probabilities by race and metropolitan area. A substantial fraction of differences in youth employment can be attributed to the isolation of minorities and poor households. Minority youth residing in more segregated cities or cities in which minorities have less contact with nonpoor households have lower employment probabilities than otherwise comparable youth. Simulations suggest that these spatial effects explain a substantial fraction of the existing differences in youth employment rates by race.

The effect of social networks and concentrated poverty on black and hispanic youth unemployment

The effect of social networks and concentrated poverty on black and hispanic youth unemployment
Annals of Regional Science, Dec 1993, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p327, 16p

O'Regan, K.
01/01/1993

This paper examines empirically the effect of spatially concentrated poverty on minority youth employment and the role of "access" in youth labor markets. A model, in which information about jobs travels through social networks, links labor market outcomes and residential concentration of poverty. The empirical work uses U.S. Census employment data for the largest MSAs, in 1970 and 1980. The key findings are that, although concentration appears to have had no effect on black youth unemployment in 1970, the results for 1980 support "concentration effects" on unemployment for both black and hispanic youth. These effects are sizeable on average, and quite large in some cities.

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