Race, Class, Gender & Diversity

State of New York City's Housing and Neighborhoods 2011

State of New York City's Housing and Neighborhoods 2011
Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, New York University

Been, V., S. Dastrup, I.G. Ellen, B. Gross, A. Hayashi, S. Latham, M. Lewit, J. Madar, V. Reina, M. Weselcouch, and M. Williams.
05/01/2012

The Furman Center is pleased to present the 2011 edition of the State of New York City’s Housing and Neighborhoods. In this annual report, the Furman Center compiles statistics on housing, demographics and quality of life in the City, its five boroughs and 59 community districts.This year we examine the distribution of the burden of New York City’s property tax, analyze the changing racial and ethnic makeup of city neighborhoods, evaluate the state of mortgage lending in New York City, and compare federally-subsidized housing programs across the five most populous U.S. cities.

American Murder Revisited: Do Housing Vouchers Cause Crime?

American Murder Revisited: Do Housing Vouchers Cause Crime?
Housing Policy Debate 22(4):1-22

Ellen, Ingrid, Katherine O’Regan and Michael C. Lens
04/01/2012

Potential neighbors often express worries that Housing Choice Voucher holders heighten crime. Yet, no research systematically examines the link between the presence of voucher holders in a neighborhood and crime. Our article aims to do just this, using longitudinal, neighborhood-level crime, and voucher utilization data in 10 large US cities. We test whether the presence of additional voucher holders leads to elevated crime, controlling for neighborhood fixed effects, time-varying neighborhood characteristics, and trends in the broader sub-city area in which the neighborhood is located. In brief, crime tends to be higher in census tracts with more voucher households, but that positive relationship becomes insignificant after we control for unobserved differences across census tracts and falls further when we control for trends in the broader area. We find far more evidence for an alternative causal story; voucher use in a neighborhood tends to increase in tracts that have seen increases in crime, suggesting that voucher holders tend to move into neighborhoods where crime is elevated.

Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis

Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis
In William Tate, Ed., Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility. Rowman and Littlefield Publishing. 2012, pp. 67-82.

Ellen, I.G., O'Regan, K., Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
02/03/2012

Racial segregation in America's schools remains persistently and disturbingly high, despite decades of institutional and policy changes. This paper considers one recent change common to many urban school districts - immigration - and examines whether and how the presence of a large number of immigrant students affects racial segregation. Exploiting a student-level data set including all elementary and middle school students in New York City's public schools, sixteen percent of whom are immigrants, we conduct a series of descriptive and exploratory analysis of possible avenues of influence. While it is unclear ex ante, both theoretically and compositionally, whether the presence of immigrants should increase or decrease inter-racial interaction, our results point to a decrease. Racial stratification of foreign-born students is generally higher than that of their native-born counterparts, and this is not solely attributable to income or language-skill differences. And while this heightened segregation decreases with time in the school system, the foreign-born/native-born differential is never eliminated. Importantly, we do find that there are very large differences within the immigrant population. Thus, the effect of immigrants on patterns of racial interaction in any district will depend crucially not only on the race of the immigrants, but also on their particular country of origin.

Social justice revisited: Psychological re-colonization and the challenge of anti-oppression advocacy

Social justice revisited: Psychological re-colonization and the challenge of anti-oppression advocacy
Race, Gender, and Class, 19(1-2), 322-335.

Ali, A., McFarlane, E., Hawkins, R. L., & Udo-Inyang, I.
02/01/2012

In this article, we describe the principles of anti-oppression advocacy (AOA), an intervention model that is informed by ideals of social justice and by an emphasis on promoting psychological weilness in immigrant communities. We argue that the AOA model can create positive transformation through alternatives to traditional modes ofpsychological intervention, through social capital advocacy, and through activist-oriented partnerships between universities and communities. We also outline some of the challenges involved in advancing the AOA model, namely existing methods of service-delivery that ignore the complex workings of racism and long-standing methods of training that fail to equip practitioners with tools to counter oppression in the communities they serve.

“Waiting for the white man to change things”: Rebuilding Black poverty in New Orleans

“Waiting for the white man to change things”: Rebuilding Black poverty in New Orleans
Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 39(1), 111 – 139.

Hawkins, R. L. & Maurer, K.
01/01/2012

This paper revisits William Julius Wilson’s thesis that class has surpassed race in significance of impact on African Americans. Our study uses qualitative data from a three-year ethnographic study of 40 largely low-income families in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. We also include a review of the recent U.S. Census study assessing New Orleans’s current economic state. Participants in our study viewed race and class as major factors in four areas: (1) immediately following the devastation; (2) during relocation to other communities; (3) during the rebuilding process; and (4) historically and structurally throughout New Orleans. Our analysis concludes that racism is still a major factor in the lives of people of color. Further, for the poorest African Americans, race and class are inextricably linked and function as a structural barrier to accessing wealth, resources, and opportunities. The results have been a reproduction of the economic disparities that have historically plagued New Orleans.

An Alternative Approach to Addressing Selection into and out of Social Settings: Neighborhood Change and African American Children’s Economic Outcomes

An Alternative Approach to Addressing Selection into and out of Social Settings: Neighborhood Change and African American Children’s Economic Outcomes
Sociological Methods & Research

Sharkey, Patrick.
01/01/2012

Building blocks of bias: Gender composition predicts male and female group members’ evaluations of each other and the group

Building blocks of bias: Gender composition predicts male and female group members’ evaluations of each other and the group
2012. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1209-1212

West, TV, ME Heilman, K Gullett, CA Moss-Racusin, & JC Magee.
01/01/2012

The present research examined how a group's gender composition influences intragroup evaluations. Group members evaluated fellow group members and the group as a whole following a shared task. As predicted, no performance differences were found as a function of gender composition, but judgments of individuals’ task contributions, the group's effectiveness, and desire to work with one's group again measured at a 10-week follow-up were increasingly negative as the proportion of women in the group increased. Negative judgments were consistently directed at male and female group members as indicated by no gender of target effects, demonstrating that men, simply by working alongside women, can be detrimentally affected by negative stereotypes about women. Implications for gender diversity in the workplace are discussed.

Demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates diagnosed with fetomaternal haemorrhage.

Demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates diagnosed with fetomaternal haemorrhage.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Stroustrup, Annemarie and Leonardo Trasande
01/01/2012

OBJECTIVE:

To determine clinical characteristics, demographics and short-term outcomes of neonates diagnosed with fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH).

DESIGN:

The authors analysed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2008. Singleton births diagnosed with FMH were identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) code 762.3. Descriptive, univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the national annual incidence of FMH over time as well as demographics and clinical characteristics of neonates with FMH.

RESULTS:

FMH was identified in 12 116 singleton births. Newborns with FMH required high intensity of care: 26.3% received mechanical ventilation, 22.4% received blood product transfusion and 27.8% underwent central line placement. Preterm birth (OR 3.7), placental abruption (OR 9.8) and umbilical cord anomaly (OR 11.4) were risk factors for FMH. Higher patient income was associated with increased likelihood of FMH diagnosis (OR 1.2), and Whites were more likely to be diagnosed than ethnic minorities (OR 1.9). There was reduced frequency of diagnosis in the Southern USA (OR 0.8 vs the Northeastern USA).

CONCLUSIONS:

Diagnosis of FMH is associated with significant morbidity as well as regional, socioeconomic and racial disparity. Further study is needed to distinguish between diagnostic coding bias and true epidemiology of the disease. This is the first report of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in FMH, which may represent disparities in detection that require national attention.

Economics of Housing Market Segmentation

Economics of Housing Market Segmentation
International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home

Ingrid Ellen
01/01/2012

Over the years, economists have debated the extent to which the assumption of a single housing market in a city or region is reasonable. Some have argued that in estimating housing prices, the housing market should be stratified into a series of separate submarkets, divided by structure type, neighbourhood, and potentially race and ethnicity. Still, even to the extent that these submarkets are distinct, they are clearly related. Households exhibit some flexibility in their choices, and prices in one sector clearly affect demand in other sectors to some degree. The debate about segmentation is really about degree – about how large the cross-price elasticity is between different types of housing.

Pages

Subscribe to Race, Class, Gender & Diversity