Race, Class, Gender & Diversity

The American Single Mother

The American Single Mother

Women of Color Policy Network
10/01/2010

Across race and age groups, education is the single greatest predictor of single-motherhood in America. This policy brief offers a profile of the American single woman mother, contemporary population trends, and the economic security of this growing demographic. See also our full report "At Ropes End: Single Women Mothers, Wealth and Asset Accumulation in the United States.

Hidden Talent: Tacit Skill Formation and Labor Market Incorporation of Latino Immigrants in the United States

Hidden Talent: Tacit Skill Formation and Labor Market Incorporation of Latino Immigrants in the United States
Journal of Planning Education and Research December 2010 vol. 30 no. 2 132-146

Iskander, Natasha and Nichola Lowe
09/17/2010

This article examines informal training and skill development pathways of Latino immigrant construction workers in two different urban labor markets: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina. We find that institutional differences across local labor markets not only shape how immigrants develop skills in specific places but also determine the localized obstacles they face in demonstrating and harnessing these skills for employment. To explain the role of local institutions in shaping differences in skill development experience and opportunities, we draw on the concept of tacit skill, a term that is rarely incorporated into studies of the labor market participation of less educated immigrants. We argue that innovative pathways that Latino immigrant workers have created to develop tacit skill can strengthen advocacy planning efforts aimed at improving employment opportunities and working conditions for marginalized workers, immigrant and nonimmigrant alike.

Creative State: Forty Years of Migration and Development Policy in Morocco and Mexico

Creative State: Forty Years of Migration and Development Policy in Morocco and Mexico
Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Iskander, N.
09/16/2010

At the turn of the twenty-first century, with the amount of money emigrants sent home soaring to new highs, governments around the world began searching for ways to capitalize on emigration for economic growth, and they looked to nations that already had policies in place. Morocco and Mexico featured prominently as sources of "best practices" in this area, with tailor-made financial instruments that brought migrants into the banking system, captured remittances for national development projects, fostered partnerships with emigrants for infrastructure design and provision, hosted transnational forums for development planning, and emboldened cross-border political lobbies.

In Creative State, Natasha Iskander chronicles how these innovative policies emerged and evolved over forty years. She reveals that the Moroccan and Mexican policies emulated as models of excellence were not initially devised to link emigration to development, but rather were deployed to strengthen both governments' domestic hold on power. The process of policy design, however, was so iterative and improvisational that neither the governments nor their migrant constituencies ever predicted, much less intended, the ways the new initiatives would gradually but fundamentally redefine nationhood, development, and citizenship. Morocco's and Mexico's experiences with migration and development policy demonstrate that far from being a prosaic institution resistant to change, the state can be a remarkable site of creativity, an essential but often overlooked component of good governance.

 

Income and Poverty in Communities of Color

Income and Poverty in Communities of Color

Women of Color Policy Network
09/01/2010

The U.S. Census Bureau’s recent statistics on income highlight the need for increased social supports for working families, the allocation of additional funds to create quality jobs with good wages, and the development of bold and targeted policies to help individuals and groups disproportionately impacted by the recession recover.

Gender, sexual orientation, and adolescent HIV testing: A qualitative analysis

Gender, sexual orientation, and adolescent HIV testing: A qualitative analysis
Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 21, 314-326. 10.1016/j.jana.2009.12.008, PMCID: PMC2902626

Siegel, K., H.M. Lekas, K. Olson, and N. Van Devanter
07/01/2010

Using qualitative data, this article explored the circumstances leading to HIV testing among 59 HIV infected adolescents recruited from New York City HIV clinics. Results showed differences between the heterosexual women and the gay and bisexual men. Most of the young women were tested during routine health care or self-initiated tests, and most were asymptomatic when they tested positive. Their testing decisions were sometimes based on assessments of their boyfriends’ risk behaviors, rather than their own. Many males were experiencing symptoms of illness when they tested positive, and about half of these recognized their symptoms as related to HIV and sought tests. Some young men expressed fear of learning about positive test results, which delayed their testing, and some providers did not initially recommend HIV testing for males who presented with symptoms. The article concludes that consideration of these gender and sexual orientation-related concerns can facilitate HIV testing among adolescents.

The Rise and Fall of a Micro-Learning Region: Mexican Immigrants and Construction in Center-South Philadelphia

The Rise and Fall of a Micro-Learning Region: Mexican Immigrants and Construction in Center-South Philadelphia
2010. Environment and Planning A, Volume 42, Number 7

Iskander, Natasha, Nichola Lowe, and Christine Riordan
07/01/2010

This paper documents the rise and fall of a micro-learning region in Philadelphia. The central actors in this region are undocumented Mexican immigrants who until recently were able to draw on the intensity of their workplace interactions and their heterodox knowledge to produce new and innovative building techniques in the city's residential construction. The new knowledge they developed was primarily tacit. More significantly, the learning practices through which immigrant workers developed skill and innovated new techniques were also heavily tacit. Because these practices were never made formal and were never made explicit, they remained invisible and difficult to defend. With the housing market collapse and subsequent decline in housing renovation in south-center region of Philadelphia, this tacit knowledge and the practices that gave it shape and significance, are no longer easily accessible. We draw on this case to demonstrate the importance of access to the political and economic resources to turn learning practices into visible structured institutions that protect knowledge and skill. Whether or not the practices that support knowledge development are themselves made explicit can determine whether the knowledge they produce becomes an innovation that is recognized and adopted or whether it remains confined to a set of ephemeral practices that exist only so long as they are being enacted.

Time-preference, Non-cognitive Skills and Well-being across the Life Course: Do Non-cognitive Skills Encourage Healthy Behavior?

Time-preference, Non-cognitive Skills and Well-being across the Life Course: Do Non-cognitive Skills Encourage Healthy Behavior?
American Economic Review, May, Volume 100(2): 200-204

Chiteji, N.
05/01/2010

No abstract available.

Disparities in Service Quality Among Insured Adult Patients Seen in Physicians’ Offices

Disparities in Service Quality Among Insured Adult Patients Seen in Physicians’ Offices
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2010. Volume 25 / Issue 04 / April 2010, pp 357-362, Published online

Dan Ly, Sherry Glied
04/01/2010

Objective

To examine racial disparities in health care service quality.

Design

Secondary data analyses of visits by primary care service users in the Community Tracking Study household sample.

Setting
Sixty communities across the United States.
Participants
A total of 41,537 insured adult patients making sick visits to primary care physicians in 1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001, and 2003.
Measurements
Lag between appointment and physician visit, waiting time in physician office, and satisfaction with care were analyzed.
Results
Blacks but not other minorities were more likely to have an appointment lag of more than 1 week (13% white vs. 21% black, p < 0.001). Blacks, Hispanics, and other minorities were more likely to wait more than 30 min before being seen by the physician (16% white vs. 26% black, p < 0.001; vs. 27% Hispanic and 22% other minority, p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) and were less likely to report that they were very satisfied with their care (65% white vs. 60% black, p = 0.02; vs. 57% Hispanic and 48% other minority, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). The differences in appointment lag and wait time remain large and statistically significant after the inclusion of multiple covariates, including geographic controls for CTS site. For all groups, satisfaction with care was affected by objective measures of service quality. Differences in objective measures of service quality explained much of the black-white difference in satisfaction, though not differences for other minority groups.
Conclusion
There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities in satisfaction with care, and these are related to objective quality measures that can be improved.

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