Congressional Ideology and Administrative Oversight in the New Deal Era
Historical Methods, v. 43, n. 3 (2010).
Anthony M. Bertelli
Congressional Ideology and Administrative Oversight in the New Deal Era
Historical Methods, v. 43, n. 3 (2010).
Anthony M. Bertelli
A la santé de l'oncle Sam: regards croisés sur les systémes de santé; américain et français (To Uncle Sam's Health: Cross perspectives on the American and French Health Systems)
Tabuteau, D., Rodwin, V.G.
Victor Rodwin, professor of health policy and management at NYU Wagner, and his colleague Didier Tabuteau, counselor of state and professor of health policy at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques and the University of Paris Descartes, have published a new book (published by Editions Jacob Duvernet) in which they challenge the conventional wisdom that the French health care system is a government-managed, public and collective enterprise and the American system a private, market-oriented and individualist system. Based on six months of debates in Paris while Professor Rodwin held the Fulbright-Toqueville Chair (spring semester, 2010), this book compares public health, health insurance, the power of physicians, health care reform, and the silent revolution that is transforming health care organization in both France and the United States.
Epidemiological characteristics and resource use in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: 1993-2006
Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):291-7.
Stroustrup A, Trasande L.
To determine the trends in incidence of diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and associated health services use for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD in an era of changing definitions and management.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
All neonatal hospitalization records available through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993-2006, were analyzed. Multivariable regression analyses were performed for incidence of BPD diagnosis and associated hospital length of stay and charges. Multiple models were constructed to assess the roles of changes in diagnosis of very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and different modalities of respiratory support used for treatment.
The absolute incidence of diagnosis of BPD fell 3.3% annually (P = .0009) between 1993 and 2006 coincident with a 3.5-fold increase in the use of noninvasive respiratory support in patients with BPD. When data were controlled for demographic factors, this significant decrease in incidence persisted at a rate of 4.3% annually (P = .0002). All models demonstrated a rise in hospital length of stay and financial charges for the neonatal hospitalization of patients with BPD. The incidence of BPD adjusted for frequency of prolonged mechanical ventilation also decreased but only by 2.8% annually (P = .0075).
The incidence of diagnosis of BPD decreased significantly between 1993 and 2006. In well-controlled models, birth hospitalization charges for these patients rose during the same period. Less invasive ventilatory support may improve respiratory outcomes of VLBW neonates.
Economic Development Impacts of High-speed Rail
RCWP 10-007 June, 2010
High-speed rail lines have been built and proposed in numerous countries throughout the world. The advantages of such lines are a higher quality of service than competing modes (air, bus, auto, conventional rail), potentially faster point-to-point times depending on specific locations, faster
loading and unloading times, higher safety than some modes, and lower labor costs. The disadvantage primarily lies in higher fixed costs, potentially higher energy costs than some competing modes, and higher noise externalities. Whether the net benefits outweigh the net costs is an empirical question that awaits determination based on location specific factors, project costs, local demand, and network effects (depending on what else in the network exists). The optimal network design problem is hard (in the mathematical sense of hard, meaning optimal solutions are hard to find because of the combinatorics of the possible different network configurations), so heuristics and human judgment are used to design networks.
Selective Knowledge: Reporting Bias in Microfinance Data
Perspectives on Global Development and Technology.
Morduch, J. & Bauchet, J.
Answering surveys is usually voluntary, yet much of our knowledge depends on the willingness of households and institutions to answer. In this study, we explore the implications of voluntary reporting on knowledge about microfinance. We show systematic biases in microfinance institutions' choices about which survey to respond to and which specific indicators to report. The analysis focuses on data for 2,072 microfinance institutions from MixMarket and the Microcredit Summit Campaign databases for the years 2004-2006. In general, we find that financial indicators are more often reported than social indicators. The patterns of reporting correlate with the institutions' region of operation, mission, and size. The patterns in turn affect analyses of key questions on trade-offs between financial and social goals in microfinance. For example, the relationship between operational self-sufficiency and the percentage of women borrowers is positive in the Microcredit Summit Campaign data but negative in the MixMarket data. The results highlight the conditional nature of our knowledge and the value of supporting social reporting.
Understanding the Challenges of Regional Ferry Service in New York City
RCWP 10-006 June, 2010
On February 12th, 2008, Christine Quinn, Speaker of the New York City Council, took to the dais at the City Council Chambers to deliver the State of the City Address. Towards the 17th page of an 18 page address, the Speaker’s remarks turned to public transit and the Mayor’s recently released PlaNYC initiatives. While transit is generally a hot topic in New York, Mayor Bloomberg had made transportation a centerpiece of his second term and was spending the winter in a campaign to convince the State Legislature to approve a congestion pricing scheme in Manhattan to finance transportation capital projects.
“It’s only natural to look at our natural highways, our water ways... to move New Yorkers efficiently and sustainably.” Said Speaker Quinn, “That’s why we are proposing and the Mayor has agreed to begin developing a comprehensive five borough, year-round New York City Ferry System.” The Speaker explained that the idea for ferry service originated through a series of public hearings she held with her colleagues in the Council:
“Soon after, we began exploring the concept of a pilot ferry service for the Rockaways…got a commitment from the Mayor to fund it…and that service should be up and running by this summer.
Two years and twelve days later, the rhetoric of the State of the City speech came crashing to an anti-climactic end, as a report in the Daily News announced the cancellation of the Rockaways service. The ferry would cease operations at the end of March.
Plans for a five borough Ferry System have not materialized, except for an East River ferry serving developments along the Queens/Brooklyn waterfront, currently with two sailings during the AM and PM peak hours is expected to offer more frequent service next year The Rockaway route had not met ridership projections and was recovering only 15-30% of its operational costs from revenues collected at the farebox. The failure of the Rockaway ferry service, combined with the cancellation of another newly opened ferry service between Yonkers and Lower Manhattan in 2009 has dashed the hopes of some who wished to exploit New York’s water resources to improve commuting options via ferries. This has led to questions about the feasibility of expanding ferry service in New York City more broadly.
As large sections of the New York City waterfront are reclaimed from decades of industrial land use, idyllic waterfront parks have been developed next to gleaming residential towers. It seems only natural that ferries will soon serve a role in transporting residents and visitors to these new neighborhoods throughout the City. However, recent experiences illustrate the many obstacles facing expanded ferry services in New York City
Health Care in World Cities: New York, London and Paris
Johns Hopkins University Press, April
Gusmano, M.K., Rodwin, V.G. & Weisz, D.
New York. London. Paris. Although these cities have similar sociodemographic characteristics, including income inequalities and ethic diversity, they have vastly different health systems and services. This book compares the three and considers lessons that can be applied to current and future debates about urban health care.
Highlighting the importance of a national policy for city health systems, the authors use well-established indicators and comparable data sources to shed light on urban health policy and practice. Their detailed comparison of the three city health systems and the national policy regimes in which they function provides information about access to health care in the developed world's largest cities.
The authors first review the current literature on comparative analysis of health systems and offer a brief overview of the public health infrastructure in each city. Later chapters illustrate how timely and appropriate disease prevention, primary care, and specialty health care services can help cities control such problems as premature mortality and heart disease.
In providing empirical comparisons of access to care in these three health systems, the authors refute inaccurate claims about health care outside of the United States.
Click here for a brief excerpt of the content.
Minimum Parking Requirements, Transit Proximity and Development in New York City
RCWP 10-004 Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy
McDonnell, Simon, Josiah Madar and Vicki Been
New York City policymakers are planning for a city of over 9 million residents by 2030, a large increase from today. A central goal of City officials is to accommodate this increase while simultaneously improving the City’s overall environmental performance, addressing externalities arising from traffic congestion and providing increased access to affordable housing. The requirement in the City’s zoning code that new residential construction be accompanied by a minimum number of off-street parking spaces, however, may conflict with this goal. This paper combines a theoretical discussion of parking requirements in New York City with a quantitative analysis of how they relate to transit and development opportunity. It draws direct relations between minimum parking requirements with the rise in housing prices and the reduction of density.
Half the World is Unbanked
Financial Access Initiative Report, October 2009. Feature in McKinsey Quarterly, March 2010
Jonathan Morduch, Alberto Chaia, Aparna Dalal, Tony Goland, Maria Jose Gonzalez, and Robert Schiff
Limited information on the size and nature of the global population using financial services limits policy makers’ abilities to identify what’s working and what’s not, and it limits financial services providers’ abilities to identify where the opportunities lie and where they could learn from current successes.
A new report, “Half the world is unbanked,” provides an improved estimate of the size and nature of the global population that does and does not use formal (or semiformal) financial services.
This paper builds on a data set compiled from existing cross-country data sources on financial access and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics to generate an improved estimate of the size and nature of the global population that does and does not use formal (or semiformal) financial services.
A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico
Environ Health. 2010 Mar 23;9:14
Cifuentes E, Trasande L, Ramirez M, Landrigan PJ.
Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards.
We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation.
We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform.
The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique vulnerability to environmental contaminants. If regulation and legislation are not updated and implemented to protect children, increases in preventable exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment may ensue.