Social Policy

Minimum Parking Requirements, Transit Proximity and Development in New York City

Minimum Parking Requirements, Transit Proximity and Development in New York City
RCWP 10-004 Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy

McDonnell, Simon, Josiah Madar and Vicki Been
04/01/2010

New York City policymakers are planning for a city of over 9 million residents by 2030, a large increase from today. A central goal of City officials is to accommodate this increase while simultaneously improving the City’s overall environmental performance, addressing externalities arising from traffic congestion and providing increased access to affordable housing. The requirement in the City’s zoning code that new residential construction be accompanied by a minimum number of off-street parking spaces, however, may conflict with this goal. This paper combines a theoretical discussion of parking requirements in New York City with a quantitative analysis of how they relate to transit and development opportunity. It draws direct relations between minimum parking requirements with the rise in housing prices and the reduction of density.

Half the World is Unbanked

Half the World is Unbanked
Financial Access Initiative Report, October 2009. Feature in McKinsey Quarterly, March 2010

Jonathan Morduch, Alberto Chaia, Aparna Dalal, Tony Goland, Maria Jose Gonzalez, and Robert Schiff
03/01/2010

Limited information on the size and nature of the global population using financial services limits policy makers’ abilities to identify what’s working and what’s not, and it limits financial services providers’ abilities to identify where the opportunities lie and where they could learn from current successes.

A new report, “Half the world is unbanked,” provides an improved estimate of the size and nature of the global population that does and does not use formal (or semiformal) financial services.

This paper builds on a data set compiled from existing cross-country data sources on financial access and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics to generate an improved estimate of the size and nature of the global population that does and does not use formal (or semiformal) financial services.

A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico

A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico
Environ Health. 2010 Mar 23;9:14

Cifuentes E, Trasande L, Ramirez M, Landrigan PJ.
03/01/2010

BACKGROUND:

Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards.

METHODS:

We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation.

RESULTS:

We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform.

CONCLUSIONS:

The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique vulnerability to environmental contaminants. If regulation and legislation are not updated and implemented to protect children, increases in preventable exposures to toxic chemicals in the environment may ensue.

How much should we invest in preventing childhood obesity?

How much should we invest in preventing childhood obesity?
Health Aff (Millwood). 2010 Mar-Apr;29(3):372-8.

Trasande L
03/01/2010

Policy makers generally agree that childhood obesity is a national problem. However, it is not always clear whether enough is being spent to combat it. This paper presents nine scenarios that assume three different degrees of reduction in obesity/overweight rates among children in three age groups. A mathematical model was then used to project lifetime health and economic gains. Spending $2 billion a year would be cost-effective if it reduced obesity among twelve-year-olds by one percentage point. The analysis also found that childhood obesity has more profound economic consequences than previously documented. Large investments to reduce this major contributor to adult disability may thus be cost-effective by widely accepted criteria.

Power Differences in the Construal of a Crisis: The Immediate Aftermath of September 11, 2001

Power Differences in the Construal of a Crisis: The Immediate Aftermath of September 11, 2001
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(3), 354-370.

Magee, J.C., Milliken, F.J. & Lurie, A.R.
03/01/2010

In this research, we examine the relationship between power and three characteristics of construal-abstraction, valence, and certainty-in individuals' verbatim reactions to the events of September 11, 2001 and during the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks. We conceptualize power as a form of social distance and find that position power (but not expert power) was positively associated with the use of language that was more abstract (vs. concrete), positive (vs. negative), and certain (vs. uncertain). These effects persist after controlling for temporal distance, geographic distance, and impression management motivation. Our results support central and corollary predictions of Construal Level Theory (Liberman, Trope, & Stephan, 2007; Trope & Liberman, 2003) in a high-consequence, real-world context, and our method provides a template for future research in this area outside of the laboratory.

Brandraising: How Nonprofits Raise Visibility and Money Through Smart Communications

Brandraising: How Nonprofits Raise Visibility and Money Through Smart Communications

Durham, Sarah
01/01/2010

In the current economic climate, nonprofits need to focus on ways to stand out from the crowd, win charitable dollars, and survive the downturn. Effective, mission-focused communications can help organizations build strong identities, heightened reputations, and increased fundraising capability. Brandraising outlines a mission-driven approach to communications and marketing, specifically designed to boost fundraising efforts. This book provides tools and guidance for nonprofits seeking to transform their communications and marketing through smart positioning, branding, campaigns, and materials that leverage solid strategy and great creative, with a unique focus on the intersection of communications and fundraising.

New York City Quarterly Housing Update 2010: 3rd Quarter

New York City Quarterly Housing Update 2010: 3rd Quarter

Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy.
01/01/2010

After analyzing six key indicators of housing market performance for the third quarter of 2010, NYU's Furman Center finds that New York City home prices are stabilizing, but still remain 22% below peak. The report also finds that a decrease in third-quarter foreclosure filings compared to last year may point to a slowdown in the foreclosure crisis. The Quarterly Housing Update incorporates sales data, development indicators and foreclosures, and presents a repeat sales index for each borough to capture price appreciation while controlling for housing quality.

Pension Obligation Bonds: Financial Crisis Exposes Risks (Brief Number 9 in State and Local Pension Plans Series ed.)

Pension Obligation Bonds: Financial Crisis Exposes Risks (Brief Number 9 in State and Local Pension Plans Series ed.)
Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

Munnell, A., Calabrese, T., Monk, A., Aubry, J.-P
01/01/2010

The brief’s key findings are:

  • Some state and local governments issue Pension Obligation Bonds (POBs) to raise cash to cover their required pension contributions.
  • POBs allow governments to avoid increasing taxes in bad times and could reduce pension costs, but they pose considerable risks.
  • Those who issue POBs are often fiscally stressed and not well-positioned to handle the investment risk.

Transportation to Clinic: Findings from a Pilot Clinic-Based Survey of Low-Income Suburbanites

Transportation to Clinic: Findings from a Pilot Clinic-Based Survey of Low-Income Suburbanites
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2010.  DOI: 10.1007/s10903-010-9410-0

Silver D, J Blustein, BC Weitzman.
01/01/2010

Health care policymakers have cited transportation barriers as key obstacles to providing health care to low-income suburbanites, particularly because suburbs have become home to a growing number of recent immigrants who are less likely to own cars than their neighbors. In a suburb of New York City, we conducted a pilot survey of low income, largely immigrant clients in four public clinics, to find out how much transportation difficulties limit their access to primary care. Clients were receptive to the opportunity to participate in the survey (response rate = 94%). Nearly one-quarter reported having transportation problems that had caused them to miss or reschedule a clinic appointment in the past. Difficulties included limited and unreliable local bus service, and a tenuous connection to a car. Our pilot work suggests that this population is willing to participate in a survey on this topic. Further, since even among those attending clinic there was significant evidence of past transportation problems, it suggests that a population based survey would yield information about substantial transportation barriers to health care.

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