Urban Planning

The Property Tax, Land Use and Land Use Regulation

The Property Tax, Land Use and Land Use Regulation
Edward Elgar Publishing,

Netzer, D., ed.
01/01/2003

This comprehensive volume of essays by respected scholars in economics and public finance explores the connections among the property tax, land use and regulation. The authors examine the idea that the property tax is used as a partial substitute for land use regulation and other policies designed to affect how land is utilized. Like many economists, the contributors see some type of property taxation as a more efficient means of helping to shape land use. Some of the essays analyze a conventional property tax, while others consider radically different systems of property taxation.

Following an introduction by the book's editor Dick Netzer, the first paper sets the stage by modeling taxes on land and buildings in the context of a dynamic model of real estate markets. The remaining papers examine how various tax mechanisms and non-tax alternatives to regulating and determining land use, such as zoning and private neighborhood associations, complement or substitute for one another. Urban planners and economists interested in local public finance will welcome this wide-ranging review and analysis.

Dick Netzer, a leading public finance economist specializing in state and local issues and urban government, is professor emeritus of economics and public administration at the Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University. He organized a conference sponsored by the Lincoln Institute in Scottsdale, Arizona, in January 2002 and edited the papers presented at that conference for this volume.

 

What Have We Learned from HUDs Moving to Opportunity Program?

What Have We Learned from HUDs Moving to Opportunity Program?
In John M. Goering and Judith D. Feins, eds., Choosing a Better Life? A Social Experiment in Leaving Poverty Behind: Evaluation of the Moving to Opportunity Program. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press,

Ellen, I.G. & Turner, M.
01/01/2003

As the centerpiece of policymakers' efforts to "deconcentrate" poverty in urban America, the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) project gave roughly 4,600 volunteer families the chance to move out of public housing projects in deeply impoverished neighborhoods in five cities-Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York. Researchers wanted to find out to what extent moving out of a poor neighborhood into a better-off area would improve the lives of public housing families. Choosing a Better Life? is the first distillation of years of research on the MTO project, the largest rigorously designed social experiment to investigate the consequences of moving low-income public housing residents to low-poverty neighborhoods. In this book, leading social scientists and policy experts examine the legislative and political foundations of the project, analyze the effects of MTO on lives of the families involved, and explore lessons learned from this important piece of U.S. social policy.

Integrating a Comparison Group Design into a Theory of Change Evaluation: The Case of the Urban Health Initiative

Integrating a Comparison Group Design into a Theory of Change Evaluation: The Case of the Urban Health Initiative
American Journal of Evaluation 23:4 (Dec 2002), pp 371-385.

Weitzman, B.C., Silver, D. & Dillman, K.
12/01/2002

This paper describes how we strengthened the theory of change approach to evaluating a complex social initiative by integrating it with a quasi-experimental, comparison group design. We also demonstrate the plausibility of selecting a credible comparison group through the use of cluster analysis, and describe our work in validating that analysis with additional measures. The integrated evaluation design relies on two points of comparison: (1) program theory to program experience; and (2) program cities to comparison cities. We describe how we are using this integrated design to evaluate the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Urban Health Initiative, an effort that aims to improve health and safety outcomes for children and youth in five distressed urban areas through a process of citywide, multi-sector planning and changed public and private systems. We also discuss how the use of two research frameworks and multiple methods can enrich our ability to test underlying assumptions and evaluate overall program effects. Using this integrated approach has provided evidence that the earliest phases of this initiative are unfolding as the theory would predict, and that the comparison cities are not undergoing a similar experience to those in UHI. Despite many remaining limitations, this integrated evaluation can provide greater confidence in assessing whether future changes in health and safety outcomes may have resulted from the Urban Health Initiative (UHI).

The Dynamics of On-Street Parking in Large Central Cities

The Dynamics of On-Street Parking in Large Central Cities
Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, NYU Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, December,

de Cerreño, A.L.C
12/01/2002

Funded by the Federal Highway Administration, the purpose of this report is three-fold: (1) to determine, to the degree possible, the impact that on-street parking has on transportation, development, and land-use; (2) to identify and review comprehensively “on-street” parking policies and management practices in large cities; and, (3) to recommend best practice strategies for on-street parking in large cities. The report is the culmination of a year-long study, which included an extensive literature review, one-on-one discussions with city parking officials, a peer-to-peer exchange session in Boston, and a detailed questionnaire to which nine U.S. cities responded.

Lessons Learned from 22 Years of Testing the Quality Cost Model of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) Transitional Care

Lessons Learned from 22 Years of Testing the Quality Cost Model of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) Transitional Care
Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 369-75.

Brooten, D., Naylor, M., Finkler, S., et al.
01/01/2002

To describe the development, testing, modification, and results of the Quality Cost Model of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) Transitional Care on patient outcomes and health care costs in the United States over 22 years, and to delineate what has been learned for nursing education, practice, and further research. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: The Quality Cost Model of APN Transitional Care. METHODS: Review of published results of seven randomized clinical trials with very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants; women with unplanned cesarean births, high risk pregnancies, and hysterectomy surgery; elders with cardiac medical and surgical diagnoses and common diagnostic related groups (DRGs); and women with high risk pregnancies in which half of physician prenatal care was substituted with APN care. Ongoing work with the model is linking the process of APN care with the outcomes and costs of care. FINDINGS: APN intervention has consistently resulted in improved patient outcomes and reduced health care costs across groups. Groups with APN providers were rehospitalized for less time at less cost, reflecting early detection and intervention. Optimal number and timing of postdischarge home visits and telephone contacts by the APNs and patterns of rehospitalizations and acute care visits varied by group. CONCLUSIONS: To keep people well over time, APNs must have depth of knowledge and excellent clinical and interpersonal skills that are the hallmark of specialist practice, an in-depth understanding of systems and how to work within them, and sufficient patient contact to effect positive outcomes at low cost.

Lower Manhattan and the Region: Where We are and Where We Must Go

Lower Manhattan and the Region: Where We are and Where We Must Go
New York Transportation Journal, Fall 2002, Vol. 6, No. 1.

Sander, E.G.
01/01/2002

Immediately after 9/11, New York Governor George E. Pataki's senior staff asked the Rudin Center, in concert with the Regional Plan Association (RPA) and the Empire State
Transportation Alliance (ESTA),* to develop a conceptual plan for the renewal of Lower Manhattan. President George W. Bush's second visit to Lower Manhattan was scheduled for three weeks after 9/11 and the Governor wanted a preliminary plan to discuss with the President at that time.

Revitalizing Inner-City Neighborhoods: New York City's Ten Year Plan for Housing

Revitalizing Inner-City Neighborhoods: New York City's Ten Year Plan for Housing
Housing Policy Debate 13(3),

Ellen, I.G., Schill, M.H., Schwartz, A.E. & Voicu, I.
01/01/2002

This article examines the impact of New York City's Ten-Year Plan on the sale prices of homes in surrounding neighborhoods. Beginning in the mid-1980s, New York City invested $5.1 billion in constructing or rehabilitating over 180,000 units of housing in many of the city's most distressed neighborhoods. One of the main purposes was to spur neighborhood revitalization.

In this article, we describe the origins of the Ten-Year Plan, as well as the various programs the city used to implement it, and estimate whether housing built or rehabilitated under the Ten-Year Plan affected the prices of nearby homes. The prices of homes within 500 feet of Ten-Year Plan units rose relative to those located beyond 500 feet, but still within the same census tract. These findings are consistent with the proposition that well-planned project based housing programs can generate positive spillover effects and contribute to efforts to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods.

 

Setting an Agenda for Local Action: The Limits of Expert Opinion and Community Voice

Setting an Agenda for Local Action: The Limits of Expert Opinion and Community Voice
Policy Studies Journal (2002 - Vol. 30, No. 3), pp. 362-278.

Silver, D., Weitzman, B.C. & Brecher, C.
01/01/2002

Many social programs, funded by government or philanthropy, begin with efforts to improve local conditions with strategic planning. Mandated by funders, these processes aim to include the views of community residents and those with technical expertise. Program leaders are left to reconcile public and expert opinions in determining how to shape their programs. The experience of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative suggests that although consultation with experts and the public failed to reveal a clear assessment of the community's problems or their solutions, it did assist in engaging diverse groups. Despite this engagement, however, core leaders wielded substantial power in selecting the agenda.

Social Implications of Infrastructure Network Interactions

Social Implications of Infrastructure Network Interactions
Journal of Urban Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3 (December 2001), pp. 97-119. Also published in Flux Cahiers scientifiques internationaux Reseaux et Territoires (International Scientific Quarterly on Networks and Territories), Number 47, Janvier-Mars

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/2002

Urbanized and soon-to-be urbanizing areas are increasingly dependent upon infrastructure transmission and distribution networks for the provision of essential public resources and services for transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and wastewater collection and treatment. In large part, the increasing spread of population settlements at the periphery of cities and the increasing density and vertical integration of urban cores have increased reliance upon the connectivity that these networks provide. These infrastructure networks are, in turn, dependent upon one another, both functionally and spatially, in very complex ways, and that interdependence is increased as new capacity-enhancing infrastructure technologies are developed. The extent of these dependencies appears to be escalating, and that results in interactions among the systems and produces effects upon environments that are difficult to predict.

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