Urban Planning

Global Warming, Infrastructure, and Land Use in the Metropolitan New York Area: Prevention and Response

Global Warming, Infrastructure, and Land Use in the Metropolitan New York Area: Prevention and Response
The Baked Apple? Metropolitan New York in the Greenhouse, edited by Douglas Hill. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. Pp. 57-83.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1996

This paper focuses on infrastructure's vulnerability to sea level change associated with global warming. It also addresses the degree to which that infrastructure can be altered to decrease its vulnerability and the vulnerability of the land surrounding it. It centers on the metropolitan New York City area (which includes portions of New Jersey and Connecticut), that is surrounded by an extensive shoreline subject to the risks of global warming.

Public Infrastructure, Private Input Demand and Economic Performance in New England Manufacturing

Public Infrastructure, Private Input Demand and Economic Performance in New England Manufacturing
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan, pp 91-102.

Schwartz, A.E. & Morrison, C.
01/01/1996

Much of the current debate on the economic performance impacts of public infrastructure investment relates to the input-specific effects of such investment. In this article we explore these impacts by evaluating substitution patterns affecting private input use in New England manufacturing. Using a cost-based methodology, we find that, in the short run, public capital expenditures provide cost-saving benefits that exceed the associated investment costs due to substitutability between public capital and private inputs. Over time, however, stimulating investment in private capital increases economic performance more effectively than public capital expenditures alone and in fact reduces the cost incentive for such expenditures. In addition, growth in output motivated by infrastructure investment increases employment opportunities because this growth overrides short-run substitutability.

Spatial effects upon employment of outcomes: The case of New Jersey teenagers

Spatial effects upon employment of outcomes: The case of New Jersey teenagers
New England Economic Review, May/Jun 1996, p41, 18p, 16 charts

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1996

Provides tests of the relative importance of spatial factors on employment outcomes of teenagers in the United States. Relations between youth employment probabilities to individuals and family characteristics; Sources of statistical problems in the interpretation of findings about youth employment; Concerns on the youth's choice of neighborhood.

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households
Journal of Human Resources, Summer 1996, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p692-702, 11p, 3 charts

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1996

This paper tests the importance of the spatial isolation of minority and poverty households for youth employment in large metropolitan areas. We estimate a model relating youth employment probabilities to individual and family characteristics, race, and metropolitan location. We then investigate the determinants of the systematic differences in employment probabilities by race and metropolitan area. A substantial fraction of differences in youth employment can be attributed to the isolation of minorities and poor households. Minority youth residing in more segregated cities or cities in which minorities have less contact with nonpoor households have lower employment probabilities than otherwise comparable youth. Simulations suggest that these spatial effects explain a substantial fraction of the existing differences in youth employment rates by race.

Farm Operator Perceptions of Water Quality Protective Pest Management Practices: Selected Survey Findings

Farm Operator Perceptions of Water Quality Protective Pest Management Practices: Selected Survey Findings
Environmental Challenges: The Next 20 Years, National Association of Environmental Professionals 20th Annual Conference Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: NAEP. Pp. 780-785.

Zimmerman, R. & Lichtenberg, E.
01/01/1995

Guidelines for Application of Meta-analysis in Environmental Epidemiology

Guidelines for Application of Meta-analysis in Environmental Epidemiology
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 22 , pp. 189-197.

Zimmerman, R., Blair, A., Burg, J., Foran, J., Gibb, H., Greenland, S…. & Wong, O.
01/01/1995

The use of meta-analysis in environmental epidemiology can enhance the value of epidemiologic data in debates about environmental health risks. Meta-analysis may be particularly useful to formally examine sources of heterogeneity, to clarify the relationship between environmental exposures and health effects, and to generate information beyond that provided by individual studies or a narrative review. However, meta-analysis may not be useful when the relationship between exposure and disease is obvious, when there are only a few studies of the key health outcomes, or when there is substantial confounding or other biases which cannot be adjusted for in the analysis. Recent increases in the use of meta-analysis in environmental epidemiology have highlighted the need for guidelines for the application of the technique. Guidelines, in the form of desirable and undesirable attributes, are presented in this paper for various components of a metaanalysis including study identification and selection; data extraction and analysis; and interpretation, presentation, and communication of results, Also discussed are the appropriateness of the use of meta-analysis in environmental health studies and when metaanalysis should or should not be used.

Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth

Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth
Regional Science & Urban Economics, April, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p131, 21p.

Holtz-Eakin, D. & Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/1995

Proposes a neoclassical economic growth model to show the connection between infrastructure and productivity growth. Model as a framework for analyzing the empirical importance of public capital accumulation to productivity growth in the United States between 1971 and 1986; Characteristics of the growth path toward the steady state; Econometric implications.

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