Urban Planning

Guidelines for Application of Meta-analysis in Environmental Epidemiology

Guidelines for Application of Meta-analysis in Environmental Epidemiology
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 22 , pp. 189-197.

Zimmerman, R., Blair, A., Burg, J., Foran, J., Gibb, H., Greenland, S…. & Wong, O.
01/01/1995

The use of meta-analysis in environmental epidemiology can enhance the value of epidemiologic data in debates about environmental health risks. Meta-analysis may be particularly useful to formally examine sources of heterogeneity, to clarify the relationship between environmental exposures and health effects, and to generate information beyond that provided by individual studies or a narrative review. However, meta-analysis may not be useful when the relationship between exposure and disease is obvious, when there are only a few studies of the key health outcomes, or when there is substantial confounding or other biases which cannot be adjusted for in the analysis. Recent increases in the use of meta-analysis in environmental epidemiology have highlighted the need for guidelines for the application of the technique. Guidelines, in the form of desirable and undesirable attributes, are presented in this paper for various components of a metaanalysis including study identification and selection; data extraction and analysis; and interpretation, presentation, and communication of results, Also discussed are the appropriateness of the use of meta-analysis in environmental health studies and when metaanalysis should or should not be used.

Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth

Infrastructure in a structural model of economic growth
Regional Science & Urban Economics, April, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p131, 21p.

Holtz-Eakin, D. & Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/1995

Proposes a neoclassical economic growth model to show the connection between infrastructure and productivity growth. Model as a framework for analyzing the empirical importance of public capital accumulation to productivity growth in the United States between 1971 and 1986; Characteristics of the growth path toward the steady state; Econometric implications.

The Relationship of Emergency Management to Governmental Policies on Man-Made Technological Disasters

The Relationship of Emergency Management to Governmental Policies on Man-Made Technological Disasters
Public Administration Review, Jan 1985, Vol. 45 Issue Special, p29-39, 11p.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1985

Examines the relationship between emergency management and governmental policies on technological disasters. Exploration of whether or not disasters exist from man-made technologies involving hazardous materials and what mechanisms are currently in place to cope with such emergencies; Review of incidents involving environmental contamination; Regulations in place to deal with contaminations; Conclusion that laws have become powerful tools for detecting and mitigating against environmental problems.

Formation of New Organizations to Manage Risk

Formation of New Organizations to Manage Risk
Policy Studies Review, 1982, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p736-747, 12p.

Zimmerman, R. T.
01/01/1982

Examines ways in which organizations adapt to changing risk assessments in the U.S. through the development of organizational forms during times of crisis. Emergence of institutional conflict in setting risk standards; Organization adaptation to high risk environments; Patterns for the formation of organizations; Differences and conflicts among administrative agencies involved in risk management.

A Variant of the Shift and Share Projection Formulation

A Variant of the Shift and Share Projection Formulation
Journal of Regional Science, April 1975, Vol. 15, Issue 1, p29-39, 10p.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1975

Examines variance of the shift and share projection formulation. Use of the shift share method in explaining historical trends in regional employment; Examination of the predictive power of the variant against the standard formulation; Evaluation of alternative projection methods for industries grouped into local market and supply-oriented categories.

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