Urban Planning

Adverse Health Effects, Environmental Attitudes, and Pesticide Usage Behavior of Farm Operators

Adverse Health Effects, Environmental Attitudes, and Pesticide Usage Behavior of Farm Operators
Risk Analysis: An International Journal, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 283-294.

Lichtenberg, E. & Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1999

Water pollution from agricultural pesticides continues to be a public concern. Given that the use of such pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behavior, it is important to understand what drives farmer behavior. Health belief models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have adverse health experiences are likely to undertake preventive behavior. An analogous hypothesis set was tested here: farmers who believe they have had adverse health experiences from pesticides are likely to have heightened concerns about pesticides and are more likely to take greater precautions in dealing with pesticides. This work is based on an original survey of a population of 2700 corn and soybean growers in Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania using the U.S. Department of Agriculture data base. It was designed as a mail survey with telephone follow-up, and resulted in a 60 percent response rate. Farm operators report experiencing adverse health problems they believe are associated with pesticides that is equivalent to an incidence rate that is higher than the reported incidence of occupational pesticide poisonings, but similar to the reported incidence of all pesticide poisonings. Farmers who report experiencing such problems have more heightened concerns about water pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and illness and injury from mixing, loading, and applying pesticides than farmers who have not experienced such problems. Farmers who report experiencing such problems also are more likely to report using alternative pest management practices than farmers who do not report having such problems. This implies that farmers who have had such experiences do care about the effects of application and do engage in alternative means of pest management, which at least involve the reduction in pesticide use.

Farmer's Willingness to Pay for Ground Water Protection

Farmer's Willingness to Pay for Ground Water Protection
Water Resources Research, Vol. 35, No. 3, March, pp. 833-841.

Lichtenberg, E. & Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1999

The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

Planning and Administration: Frameworks and Case Studies

Planning and Administration: Frameworks and Case Studies
Natural Disaster Management, edited by John Ingleton. Leicester, England: Tudor Rose, pp. 225-227.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1999

Natural Disaster Management was produced to mark the end of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), a United Nations initiative to reduce the negative effects of natural disasters. Natural Disaster Management communicates solutions to the problems associated with natural disasters, stimulating discussion and improvements in methods of protecting people and property. The volume includes contributions from over 100 experts in hazard observation and helps to raise the profile of the IDNDR initiative, bringing issues concerning natural disaster management to a wider audience.

The Emerging Role of Environmental Justice in Decision Making

The Emerging Role of Environmental Justice in Decision Making
Better Environmental Decisions: Strategies for Government, Businesses and Communities, edited by K. Sexton, A.A. Marcus, W. Easter, T. Burkhardt. Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 419-444.

Sexton, K. & Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1999

Better Environmental Decisions responds to the need for improved environmental decision making by bringing together leading scholars and practitioners to provide a comprehensive interdisciplinary introduction to the subject. Each chapter describes an important aspect of environmental decision making; identifies key issues, problems, and barriers; and recommends ways to improve both the process and the final result.

Historical and Future Perspectives on Risk Perception and Communication

Historical and Future Perspectives on Risk Perception and Communication
Risk Research and Management in Asian Perspective. Proceedings of the First China-Japan Conference on Risk Assessment and Management, Nov. 23-26, Beijing China. Edited by Beijing Normal University, Society for Risk Analysis-Japan Section, Department of Earth Sciences-National Natural Science Foundation of China. International Academic Publishers (Fall), pp. 481-487.

Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1998

Issues of Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Infrastructure in the Metro East Coast (MEC) Region of the US

Issues of Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Infrastructure in the Metro East Coast (MEC) Region of the US
Report of the MEC Infrastructure Working Group, Columbia University, March .

Jacob, K. & Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1998

The infrastructure of the Metro East Coast region (MEC, with New York City at its core) is the largest, oldest, densest, and busiest in the nation. It serves some 20 million people and built assets exceed $1 trillion. Currently there is considerable stress on the system with key problems identified as: undercapacity, underinvestment, inconsistent management suburban sprawl, and lack of long-term integrated region-wide planning. These problems are exacerbated by fragmentation of governance across competing jurisdictions. Unclear funding mechanisms, spotty economic performance, and deferred infrastructure maintenance are severe stress factors. Spatial and functional inter-connectedness between different types of infrastructure allows failures to cascade through the system - at times even shutting down substantial segments, all at a high societal cost. A special problem is lack of a farsighted solid waste management strategy. Despite these severe stresses, the system somehow manages to deliver essential services to a large population.

 

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