New Report: Re-Programming Mobility

Anthony Townsend’s new report on the future of transportation:

“With generous support from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management has developed a set of four alternative future scenarios set in a selection of representative U.S. metropolitan areas in 2030. Based on our synthesis of current and anticipated technological innovations and expert speculation on their impacts from over 150 source documents, these scenarios highlight:

  • likely and possible shifts in the market for mobility, public financing schemes, and the overall structure and function of the U.S. transportation system at a metropolitan level,
  • the kinds of organizational changes that transportation regulators, funding agencies, and public planning institutions need to begin preparing for now, and
  • the kinds of skills and practices that might be required of transportation planners in the future.”

Read more on the project website.

Event Recap: Short Talks, Big Ideas

Last night’s Short Talks, Big Ideas featured the best in transportation innovations of late:

Arlene Ducao showed off her MindRider brain wave-tracking bike helmets, which help map biking stress points in NYC.

Richard Dunks discussed the missing link in data processing (what to do with all this data), focusing on his Water Street Corridorscope project (with Jeff Ferzoco).

Paul Salama showed the potential for green loading zones, such as priority delivery windows for electric trucks.

Jose Soegaard taught us the importance of a functional NYC waterfront, including ferries that have been used in emergency evacuations.

Malinda Foy showcased new work at MTA Bridges and Tunnels, and fielded several questions about potential for biking on bridges (answer: hopefully!).

Neysa Pranger dove into potential uses for beacon technology to improve transit by sharing applicable information to riders’ devices.

Ryan Russo shared Vision Zero’s important initiatives to improve pedestrian safety in New York City, estimating that two million speeding tickets will be issued in 2014.

John Biggs discussed travel in reality and fiction, including his new young adult novel, “Mytro,” featuring a magical worldwide subway.

The event was moderated by Sarah Kaufman, NYU Rudin Center for Transportation. Please contact her if you have a big idea to share at the next event.


See the photos below (by Lauren Holter and Sarah Kaufman, in a very dark room) and visit the tweetstream for further discussion.

Bikes and Gondolas: A News-Filled Week at the Rudin Center

The Rudin Center was abuzz with discussions of bike policy after hosting NYC DOT Commissioner Polly Trottenberg for the NY Cycle Club Town Hall. Read the extensive discussion about expanding cycling in NYC on Streetsblog and check out some event photos.

We also encountered the bold new plan of connecting Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens with gondolas. We discussed the practicality and ambition of the plan, plus logistical details:
New York News


We hope to see you next Tuesday at Short Talks, Big Ideas!

Event Photos: NY Cycle Club and Polly Trottenberg

Last night’s New York Cycle Club Town Hall, hosted by the NYU Rudin Center and featuring Polly Trottenberg, NYC DOT Commissioner, brought a full crowd and exciting discussion. Event photos by Nolan Levenson.

Introducing the Emerging Leaders in Transportation Fellows

Congratulations to the inaugural class of Emerging Leaders in Transportation! We are thrilled to welcome these impressive individuals this fall to the NYU Rudin Center to amplify their leadership skills, develop new ideas to bring to their workplaces, and create an innovator network among local transportation organizations. We can’t wait to see what they do.

Meet the Fellows:


Onyinye Akujuo, from Queens, NY is an Assistant Director of Grant Management for the New York State Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA); she has delivered over 8 years’ experience in public service with a major career focus on the transportation funding and planning sector.

John Baker is Technical Staff at Consensus Systems Technologies, where he specializes in geographic information systems, regional ITS architectures, systems engineering, and the design and implementation of ITS standards.

 Stephanie Camay is a Lead Planner at Parsons Brinckerhoff, with experience in a variety of assignments including alternative analyses for rail and bus rapid transit corridors, neighborhood transportation studies, transit feasibility studies, EIS documentation, and stakeholder and public participation strategy development and implementation.

Graham Cavanagh: With an MS in City and Regional Planning from Pratt Institute and now working at the NYC DOT Manhattan Borough Commissioner’s Office, Graham Cavanagh has been greatly influenced by the values of communication design and community participation in the planning process – with the intention to promote safe, healthy, and innovative Cities.

Jana Langhammer is an electrical engineer at JFK Airport, aviation geek born in Prague, world traveler, surfer and piano player.

Andrew Lappitt works at TransOptions, a transportation-oriented nonprofit in New Jersey and has a strong interest in communicating the impacts of transportation planning concepts and principles to the public.

Aviva Laurenti is a traffic engineer (and avid cyclist) working at Sam Schwartz Engineering primarily on transportation analyses for environmental review documents with experience in New York City and the San Francisco Bay Area.

Christopher Lee is a Senior External Relations Representative for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, focusing on Government and Community Outreach to elected officials and groups in the Boroughs of Staten Island and Manhattan.

Stephanie Lotshaw is a Program Manager in the Institute for Transportation & Development Policy’s US & Africa office; her work focuses on helping cities on both continents to implement gold-standard BRT and has also recently focused on working with cities to develop high quality transit-oriented development (TOD).

Dawn Miller is the Executive Director of Strategic Planning at the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission, where she focuses on improving access to safe, convenient, high-quality for-hire transportation throughout the city.

Jacob Nussbaum: Originally from Charleston, SC, Jacob graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 2012 with a BA in Urban Studies and currently works for JetBlue Airways in Revenue Management.

Kate Rube is the Transportation Program Manager at Project for Public Spaces, and she works to foster great streets and sustainable communities through policy, training, and technical assistance work.

Frank Ruchala Jr is an associate city planner and urban designer at New York’s Department of City Planning’s Manhattan Office where he is the primary project manager for Midtown Manhattan.

Patrick Sabol: As a researcher at the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program, Patrick’s work is focused on identifying, developing, and implementing innovative new approaches to infrastructure funding and finance.

Rodney Stiles is a graduate of the Bloustein School for Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, and he is coming to terms with being an expert on the taxi industry in New York City—a symptom of years of combing through millions of taxi trip and administrative records to find answers for his bosses.

Tiffany-Ann Taylor is a formally trained Urban Planner with a passion for transportation planning, emergency management, public policy and community infrastructure.

Midori Valdivia is currently a Senior Advisor to the Executive Director of the Port Authority and has a background in urban planning and financial management.

Ema Carol Yamamoto: Equipped with degrees in civil engineering and transportation planning, Ema works to advance the state of transportation in Philadelphia as a Planner/Analyst for Philadelphia’s Mayor’s Office of Transportation & Utilities.

Beth Zall is a Transportation Planner at Parsons Brinckerhoff who is currently actively involved in the Port Authority Midtown Bus Master Plan effort.


The fellowship will be directed by Sarah Kaufman of the NYU Rudin Center.

This fellowship is co-sponsored by the University Transportation Research Center.

NYC Now #1 Cycling City in US

At a press conference today alongside the new Lafayette Street protected bike lane, NYC Department of Transportation Commissioner Polly Trottenberg and Bicycling Magazine’s Bill Strickland announced that New York City is now the top city for biking in the United States. 

From the DOT press release:

“New Yorkers love to cycle and they bring an energy and passion that only this city can produce. I want to thank the past leadership at DOT and our current bike lane innovators who helped make New York the best biking city in the U.S.” – DOT Commissioner Polly Trottenberg

See photos of the event below, with the NYU Rudin Center’s Puck Building office in the background. Photos by Nolan Levenson.

New event: Short Talks, Big Ideas

Join us at the sixth edition of Short Talks, Big Ideas on September 23rd.

RSVP here –

Sponsored by the Rudin Center and by the University Transportation Research Center

Date: Tuesday, September 23, 2014
Time: 6:30pm – 9:30pm
Location:  295 Lafayette Street, 2nd Floor, NYC
                 The Rudin Family Forum for Civic Dialogue

Join the NYU Rudin Center to learn about the frontiers of transportation in this sixth event of the Short Talks, Big Ideas series.
Speakers will deliver lightning presentations about their work and ideas, followed by networking and refreshments. We guarantee the audience will learn something new.

Confirmed Speakers:
John Biggs, TechCrunch – “Mytro”
Arlene Ducao, MindRider – Brain wave-tracking bike helmets
Richard Dunks, NYU CUSP – Water Street Corridorscope
Malinda Foy, MTA Bridges and Tunnels
Neysa Pranger, Control Group – Beacon technology for transit
Ryan Russo, NYC DOT – Vision Zero
Paul Salama, WXY Architecture + Urban Design – Green loading zones
Jose Soegaard, Metropolitan Waterfront Alliance – Development of the NY/NJ waterfront

Sarah Kaufman, NYU Rudin Center for Transportation

Follow @NYURudin for more speaker announcements, and join the discussion on Twitter at #BigIdeas14


The Psychology of Reducing Traffic Speeds

No one receives a social penalty for aggressive driving, and only rarely a legal penalty,” writes Tom Vanderbilt, NYU Rudin Center Visiting Scholar, in The New York Times. Read his full piece about the psychological aspects of attaining Vision Zero here.

Full Link:

Trend Report: Re-Programming Mobility

The latest in our series of findings from our ongoing work on “Re-Programming Mobility” is a trend report and set of research notes highlighting key findings from our year-long survey of more than 150 sources highlighting new technologies and services shaping the future of transportation, new scientific discoveries, forecasts and speculation, and emerging conflicts.  (A complete source bibliography is available at

They are a compendium of trends and signals about the ongoing and future transformation of mobility in the United States as a growing wave of innovation employing digital technologies and services take hold between now and 2030.

These notes are organized according to four alternative future scenarios we are developing which will be published in early September 2014. They are intended as a sneak preview of the key themes of each scenario, a supplement to the scenarios themselves, as well as an informational resource for the research community.

The complete set of scenarios will be published in early September.

Download the Trend Report.


Re-Programming Mobility: A Bibliography of Source Materials

The latest release from our Re-Programming Mobility research project is a complete bibliography of the 150+ source documents that provided much of the raw material for the four scenarios of mobility in U.S. metro areas in 2030, which will be published in early September.

The project has sought to bring more scrutiny to the public debate over the impacts of new digital technologies and services on transportation, land use, and planning.  Key questions include:

  • What new technologies and services will have the broadest impact on mobility? Which will have more focused, but transformative, impacts on niche markets?
  • How will new technologies and services impact land use patterns?
  • What kinds of organizational changes will transportation regulators, funding agencies, and planning institutions need to begin preparing for now, and what kinds of skills and practices will transportation planners need in the future?

To shed light on these questions, over the last year, our research team has conducted a comprehensive horizon scan of current debate over the nature and impact of these new technological innovations. Our analysis draws on hundreds of documents – research articles, case studies, news reports, and opinions and essays – produced by transportation experts, technology experts, journalists, and amateur observers.  From these source materials we have identified many more new technologies, new scientific discoveries, forecasts and speculation, and emerging conflicts. Some of these documents helped us identify patterns in the emerging discourse and speculation around trends in transportation, others provided expert insights and recent research findings with major impacts for future cities.

Airsage. “The Future of Transportation Studies.”

Airsage. “An Industry on the Move: The Airsage Annual Transportation Survey.” Airsage. August 15, 2013.

Alan, Christopher. “Auto Parkit: A Parking Revolution Comes to Urban America.” The Planning Report. June 5, 2013.

Alter, Lloyd. “Google Unveils Its Designs for a Self-driving Car, and It Will Change Our Cities and Suburbs.” Treehugger. May 28, 2014.

Alter, Lloyd. “How the Self-driving Car Might Make Our Cities Better and Greener.” Treehugger. June 17, 2013.

“Millennials & Mobility: Understanding the Millennial Mindset.” American Public Transportation Association (APTA). October 2013.

Arieff, Allison. “Driving Sideways.” New York Times. July 23, 2013.

Arup, and Josh Levi. “New York City 2050.” Arup Connect. December 3, 2013.

Asymobi blog. May 18, 2014.

Badger, Emily. “Driverless Vehicles Will Force Us to Rethink Car Ownership.” Washington Post. April 18, 2014.

Badger, Emily, “What the Rise of Technology Has to Do With the Decline of Driving”, CityLab, October 1, 2013.

Badger, Emily. “What Will Happen to Public Transit in a World Full of Autonomous Cars.” CityLab. January 17, 2014.

Benfield, Kaid, and Lee Epstein. “Whither Intelligent Vehicles and Automated Highways.” Switchboard. June 17, 2013.

Berg, Nate. “What Running Out of Power in a Tesla on the Side of a Highway Taught Me About the Road Trip of Tomorrow.” CityLab. April 29, 2014.

Bilton, Nick. “The Money Side of Driverless Cars.” New York Times. July 9, 2013.

Bilton, Nick. “Disruptions: How Driverless Cars Could Reshape Cities.” New York Times. July 7, 2013.

De Boer, Joop. “Turtle Taxi: Push The Button To Slow Down Your Ride.” Pop Up City. May 19, 2014.

Burgess, Kaya. “No Place for Cars’ in Cities of the Future.” The Times. July 15, 2013.

Burns, Lawrence D., William C. Jordan, and Bonnie A. Scarborough. “Transforming Personal Mobility.” (The Earth Institute, Columbia University: New York). January 27, 2013.

Burns, Larry. “Test-Driving Driverless Cars.” Project Syndicate. August 15, 2013.–burns.

Byrd, H, et al. “Measuring the Solar Potential of a City and Its Implications for Energy Policy.” Energy Policy. 2013.

Chase, Robin. “Will a World of Driverless Cars Be Heaven or Hell?” CityLab. April 3, 2014.

Chin, Ryan. “Solving Transport Headaches in the City of 2050.” BBC. June 18, 2013.

Chu, Serena. “Google Glass App Helps Bikers Navigate Without Phones.” Psfk. September 25, 2013.!6uISV.

Conway, Peter. “The Next Autonomous Car Is A Truck.” Strategy+Business. May 28, 2013.

Cranshaw, Justin. “Whose “City of Tomorrow” Is It? On Urban Computing, Utopianism, and Ethics.” 2013.

DeChant, Tim. “In 40 Years, Will Self-driving Cars Send Us Packing for the Suburbs?” Per Square Mile Blog. March 20, 2014.

Diana, Carla. “Talking, Walking Objects.” New York Times. January 26, 2013.

“An Internet of Airborne Things.” The Economist. December 1, 2012.

“How to Be Urban.” The Economist. June 1, 2010.

Eubanks, Cormac. “These Drones Will Save Your Life.” Design Mind. January 17, 2014.

Fang, Eric. “The Case for Age-Friendly Suburbs.” Planetizen Blog. April 5, 2013.

Feige, Irene. “The Future of Mobility – Scenarios for the Year 2025.” In Trends and Issues in Global Tourism.

Ferro, Shaunacy. “SmartWalk Turns Any Surface Into A Subway Tracker.” Fast Company Design Blog. April 14, 2014.

Fiorindo, Greg. “Parking: Can Technology Tackle the Great Unsolved Urban Problem?” Meeting of the Minds Blog. July 23, 2013.

Flegenheimer, Matt. “Bloomberg’s Traffic Ideas: First the World, Then, Maybe, the City.” New York Times. July 13, 2013.

“Megacities on the Move: Your Guide to the Future of Sustainable Urban Mobility in 2040.” Forum for the Future. November 2010.

Gandelsonas, Mario. “Soft Infrastructure: Interview with Mario Gandelsonas.” GRIDS Blog. October 10, 2011.

Garthwaite, Josie. “RidePal to Help Bay Area Residents Commute Like Google Employees.” New York Times. March 1, 2012.

“Fed Telework Could Save $11 Billion a Year.” Global Workplace Analytics. September 17, 2013.

Goldwyn, Eric. “Why UberX Will Win in the End.” CityLab. April 17, 2014.

Gorton, Mark. “Using Information Technology to Achieve a Breakthrough in Transportation in New York City.” StreetsBlog.

“THE MAYOR’S VISION FOR CYCLING IN LONDON: An Olympic Legacy for All Londoners.” Greater London Authority. March 2013.

Greene, Will. “E-Services Help Tame Manila’s Traffic Mess.” Techonomy. April 10, 2014.

Hardy, Quentin. “Mapping Our Interiors.” New York Times. May 18, 2014.

Hudson, Kris. “Cities Cut Parking Mandates.” Wall Street Journal. July 9, 2013.

Hull, Dana. “The BART Strike: A Boon For Sidecar And Uber.” Siliconbeat. July 1, 2013.

Jaffe, Eric. “Using Insights and Incentives to End Rush Hour.” CityLab. May 15, 2014.

Jaffe, Eric. “No, Ride-Sharing Is Not the Death of Public Transportation.” CityLab. July 11, 2013.

Jaffe, Eric. “How Tolls Could Help Prevent a U.S. Transportation Crisis.” CityLab. May 7, 2014.

Jaffe, Erik. “Imagine: A World Where Nobody Owns Their Own Car.” CityLab. February 13, 2014.

Jaffe, Eric. “Has the Rise of Online Shopping Made Traffic Worse?” CityLab. August 2, 2013.

Janson, Chris. “10 Ways Intelligent Transportation Makes a Difference.” UBM’s Future Cities. May 19, 2014.

Kaplan, Greg. “Understanding the Long-Run Decline in Interstate Migration.” CityLab. April 2012.

Lanzendorf, Martin. “Mobility Biographies: A New Perspective for Understanding Travel Behaviour.” August 2003.

Laursen, Lucas. “How Self-Driving Cars Will Sneak Onto Our Roads.” IEEE Spectrum. April 30, 2014.

Lavrinc, Damon. “Mercedes Is Testing Google Glass Integration, and It Actually Works.” Wired. August 15, 2013.

Lawler, Ryan. “Dispatch From The Future: Uber To Purchase 2,500 Driverless Cars From Google.” Techcrunch. August 25, 2013.

Leber, Jessica. “Looking More Closely at the Way People Move through Cities.” MIT Technology Review.

Lee, Dave. “Self-driving Car given UK Test Run at Oxford University.” BBC News. February 14, 2013.

Lee, Timothy B. “Low-income Countries Might Get Drone Deliveries before the U.S. Here’s Why.” Washington Post. December 3, 2013.

Lev-Ram, Michael. “The End of Driving (as We Know It).” Fortune. June 12, 2014.

Levinson, David. “Pricing With and Without Reservations.” Transportationist Blog. June 18, 2013.

Levinson, David. “What Ever Happened to Traffic?” Transportationist Blog. November 7, 2013.

Mann, Ted. “Taxi-Hail Apps Mostly Used Outside Manhattan and at Odd Hours.” Wall Street Journal Metropolis Blog. August 5, 2013.

Markoff, John. “At High Speed, on the Road to a Driverless Future.” New York Times. May 27, 2013.

Markoff, John. “”Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars.” New York Times. May 29, 2014.

Markoff, John. “Google’s Next Phase in Driverless Cars: No Steering Wheel or Brake Pedals.” New York Times. May 27, 2014.

Martinez, Marcus, and Amna Ansari. “Shuffle City.” Alloybuild.

McCrum, Dan. “Insurers Will Destroy Themselves to Nudge Us Into Robot Utopia.” Financial Times. March 4, 2013.

McGrane, Sally. “Car Sharing Grows With Fewer Strings Attached.” New York Times. June 25, 2013.

“Helsingin Bussiliikenne Oy (Helsinki Bus Transportation Company) Saves Money, Boosts Customer Satisfaction with Power BI for Office 365.” Microsoft. April 22, 2014.\

Mims, Christopher. “Commentary: Uber’s $18.2B Valuation Is a Head Scratcher.” Wall Street Journal. June 6, 2014.

Mui, Chunka. “Google Car + Uber = Killer App.” Forbes. August 23, 2013.

Mui, Chunka. “Dispatch From 2023: Google Considers Buying 250,000 Driverless Cars From Tesla, But Buys Tesla Instead.” Forbes. August 29, 2013.

Neil, Dan. “Driverless Cars for the Road Ahead.” Wall Street Journal. September 27, 2013.

Newton, Casey. “Uber Will Eventually Replace All Its Drivers with Self-driving Cars.” The Verge. May 28, 2014.

Orange PCS. “The Way to Work: Space, Place and Technology in 2016″ 2006.

Ortman, S.G., A.H.F. Cabaniss, J.O. Sturm, and L.M.A. Bettencourt. “The Pre-History of Urban Scaling.” PLoS ONE. 2014.

De La Peña, B., and R. Albright. “Catalyzing the New Mobility in Cities: A Primer on Innovative Business and Service Models.” Rockefeller Foundation. 2013.

Peterson, Molly. “Is Ridesharing the Future of Public Transit Systems, or the Failure of Them?” Southern California Public Radio. July 8, 2013.

Plumer, Brad. “Will Driverless Cars Solve Our Energy Problems — or Just Create New Ones?” Washington Post Wonkblog. March 30, 2013.

Quain, John R. “Mapping Apps Follow the Crowd.” New York Times. May 30, 2014.

Rajarman, Sunil. “What Is the Impact of Uber, Homejoy and Others on the Transportation and Housekeeping Industries?” Huffington Post. April 16, 2014.

Research and Innovative Technology Administration. “ITS Strategic Research Plan, 2010-1014.” October 2012.

Roberts, David. “This Is How You’ll Get There.” The American Prospect. January 31, 2010.

Roberts, David. “Sometimes a Driverless Car Is Not Just a Driverless Car: Thoughts on Widgets and Systems.” Grist Blog. February 1, 2013.

Romem, Issi. “Self-driving Cars: A Force for Urban Densification or Expansion?” Meeting of the Minds Blog. June 11, 2013.

Romem, Issi. “How Will Driverless Cars Affect Our Cities?” Meeting of the Minds Blog. March 25, 2013.

Roose, Kevin. “Transit Strike Shows the Dark Side of Silicon Valley’s Privatization Fetish.” New York Magazine Intelligencer Blog. July 2, 2013.

Rose, Jonathan. “5 Crucial Principles for 21st Century Transportation Systems.” CityLab. May 29, 2014.

Rosenblatt, Seth. “Even Limited to 25 Mph, Google’s Car Will Arrive Faster than You Think.” CNET. May 29, 2014.

Sadowski, Jathan. “Delivered by Drones: Are Tacocopters and Burrito Bombers the next Pony Express?” Slate. August 6, 2013.

Salesses, Philip, Katja Schechtner, and César A. Hidalgo. “The Collaborative Image of The City: Mapping the Inequality of Urban Perception.” 2013. PLoS ONE.

Salmon, Felix. “How Roads Could Beat Rail.” Reuters. January 24, 2013.

Sankin, Aaron. “”Leap Transit, San Francisco Private Bus Company, Gives Muni Some Competition.” Huffington Post. May 29, 2013.

Schwartzstein, Peter. “In Cairo, Widespread Sexual Harassment Is Also Making Traffic Congestion Worse.” CityLab. May 9, 2014.

Scola, Nancy. “The Very Big Thing That Uber, Lyft and Sidecar Didn’t Get From California.” Next City. August 6, 2013.

Scott, Mark. “Uber Faces Rebukes in Europe.” The New York Times. April 17, 2014.

Seelye, Katherine Q. “To Lure Bostonians, New ‘Pop-Up’ Bus Service Learns Riders’ Rhythms.” New York Times. June 4, 2014.

Shaheen, Susan A., Madonna L. Camel, and Lee Kunik. “Exploring the Future of Integrated Transportation Systems in the United States from 2030 to 2050: Applications of a Scenario Planning Tool.” 2013. Transportation Board Annual Meeting.

Shaheen, Susuan, and Matt Christensen. “The True Future of Transportation Has Two Big Barriers to Entry.” CityLab. April 25, 2014.

“Smart City Gran Concepcion.”

Smith, Bryant W. “Automated Vehicles Are Probably Legal in the United States.” Stanford University Center for Internet and Society. November 1, 2012.

Smith, Stephen J. “San Francisco Cuts ‘Cruising’ for Parking in Half With Market-Clearing Prices.” Next City. April 2, 2014.

Sottek, T.C. “Google’s Car Could Be the Best Thing Ever for Privacy on the Road: Ducking the Police May Be a Lot Easier in the Future.” The Verge. May 30, 2014.

“Lightweight Flatpack Truck Can Be Assembled in a Day.” Springwise Blog. June 19, 2013.

Steiniger, Karl, and Gabriel Bachnera. “Extending Car-sharing to Serve Commuters: An Implementation in Austria.” Ecological Economics. 2014.

Steinmetz, Katy. “Coddle Models: Cars That Can Steer Themselves–at a Dealer near You.” Time. July 1, 2013.,9171,2145999,00.html.

Stenquist, Paul. “As Workload Overwhelms, Cars Are Set to Intervene.” New York Times. April 5, 2013.

Stewart, Jack. “The Secret Nerve Center under LA’s Streets.” BBC. May 19, 2014.

Sundararajan, Arun. “Trusting the Sharing Economy to Regulate Itself.” New York Times. March 3, 2014.

Templeton, Brad. “New Design Factors for Robot Cars.” Templetons Blog.

Templeton, Brad. “The Robocar and the Bicycle.” Templetons Blog. September 28, 2013.

Templeton, Brad, “Driving the Robocar Revolution”, 7DEE, Sept. 24, 2013.

“Introduction of On Demand Buses.” Tokyo University.

Tomio, Geron. “While BART Strikes Continues, Do Ride-Sharing Apps Complement Or Undercut Public Transit?” Forbes. July 3, 2013.

Torbert, Roy, and Blake Herschaft. “Driving Miss Hazy: Will Driverless Cars Decrease Fossil Fuel Consumption?” Rocky Mountain Institute Blog. January 25, 2013.

“Survey: To Recruit and Keep Millennials, Give Them Walkable Places with Good Transit and Other Options.” Transportation for America. April 22, 2014.

Trop, Jaclyn. “Detroit, Embracing New Auto Technologies, Seeks App Builders.” New York Times. June 30, 2013.

“Few U.S. Cities Are Ready for Aging Baby Boomer Population.” USA Today. March 25, 2012.

Vlasic, Bill, and Matt Richtel. “Voice-Activated Technology Is Called Safety Risk for Drivers.” New York Times. June 12, 2013.

Wallgren, Marten. “WINNER! (SeymourPowell Award) For…” Marten Wallgren Blogspot. June 14, 2009.

Walsh, Ben. “”Self-Driving Cars Are Still Cars—Which Means They Won’t Improve Your Commute.” New Republic. May 29, 2014.

Webber, Melvin. “Order in Diversity: Community Without Propinquity.” In Cities and Space: The Future Use of Urban Land. (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1963) pp 23-54.

Yoshida, Junko. “Metcalfe’s Law & the Future of Driving.” EE Times. August 23, 2013.

Youn, Hyejin, Hawoong Jeong, and Michael T. Gastner. “The Price of Anarchy in Transportation Networks: Efficiency and Optimality Control.” December 10, 2007.

Zax, David. “A World Without Car Crashes.” CityLab. February 11, 201.

Zmud, Johanna, Liisa Ecola, Peter Phleps, and Irene Feige. “The Future of Mobility: Scenarios for the United States in 2030.” Rand. 2013.

Exploring challenges in transportation and infrastructure