What influences government adoption of new vaccines in developing countries? A policy process approach.
Social Science & Medicine 65: 1751-1764.
Munira, S.L., Fritzen, S.
This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which
government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variablecentric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling ‘causal diversity’ – the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes – in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).
Discipline or democratize? Patterns of bureaucratic accountability in Southeast Asia.
International Journal of Public Administration 30: 1435–1457
Attempts to ‘regulate’ civil service personnel- to hold bureaucrats accountable, whether to politicians, the people, professional standards or the rule of law- are as old as the politician-bureaucrat relationship itself. Politicians and citizens throughout Southeast Asia are calling for greater bureaucratic accountability in a variety of country settings: one-party states and emerging democracies, and in countries with capable as well as rudimentary bureaucracies. This paper presents an analytical framework that unpacks the idioms used in common accountability reforms applied in Southeast Asian countries into four categories – ‘rules’, ‘watchdogs’, ‘culture’ and ‘re-engineering’ – and relates reform selection and implementation to country governance characteristics. The framework is used to identify reform opportunities, constraints and likely trajectories in the diverse Southeast Asian context.
Public Policy Education Goes Global: A Multidimensional Challenge
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27(1): 205-214.
There is little doubt that globalization, however defined, has hit the field of
professional policy education in the twenty years since APPAM’s Hiltonhead conference on the future of policy education first took stock of a largely American landscape. Despite the title of this session, the relevant development is not merely the accretion of public policy schools and programs around the world. It is the recognition of international dimensions of the policy education enterprise that, if taken seriously (and participants in this discussion argued that it must), promises to change the way we conduct business on multiple levels. This report of the lively discussion generated in the wake of Iris Geva-May and her coauthors’ stimulating conference paper1 explores why and how.
Envisioning public administration as a scholarly field in the year 2020: Toward global and comparative administrative theorizing
Public Administration Review
The public is plural: Local governments in public-private partnerships
Policy & Society
Fritzen, Scott. and S. Basu
Creating Deficits with Balanced Budgets
Journal of Government Financial Management 60(4): 38-44
Ives, M., Calabrese, T.
A Consequence of Exempting the Third Sector: Do Homeowners Pay More Property Taxes?
Public Finance and Management Vol 12(1): 21-50.
Calabrese, T., Carroll, D.
School District Pension Bond Issuance and the Influence on Spending Behavior
Association for Education Finance and Policy
Calabrese, T., Ely, T. L.
Public Pensions, Public Budgets, and the Risks of Pension Obligation Bonds
Society of Actuaries, Public Pension Finance Symposium
Budgeting is the core financial task in subnational governments. Although limited research has outlined the relationship between the annual operating budget and public pension funds, the existing literature has not considered the manner in which financial resources are measured within government budgets, how this measurement of resources might affect public budget decisions, and how the interaction of the budget with the actuarial model can lead public budget managers to engage in financially damaging transactions such as pension obligation bonds. This paper fills this void, and argues that the short-term nature of public budgeting coupled with the actuarial model's use of expected investment returns rather than a market discount rate for pension liability measurement causes governments to shift risk to future generations. This paper also recommends that a blended discount rate for pension liabilities be considered more appropriate when governments fund their annual pension expenditures using debt rather than equity (such as tax revenues).
Pension Obligation Bonds: Financial Crisis Exposes Risks (Brief Number 9 in State and Local Pension Plans Series ed.)
Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
Munnell, A., Calabrese, T., Monk, A., Aubry, J.-P
The brief’s key findings are:
- Some state and local governments issue Pension Obligation Bonds (POBs) to raise cash to cover their required pension contributions.
- POBs allow governments to avoid increasing taxes in bad times and could reduce pension costs, but they pose considerable risks.
- Those who issue POBs are often fiscally stressed and not well-positioned to handle the investment risk.
Trademark Law and the Social Construction of Trust: Creating the Legal Framework for On-Line Identity
83 Wash. U. L. Q. 1733
The intellectual property system has fostered many debates, including recent ones, regarding how the system affects access to knowledge. Yet, before one can access, one must preserve. Two interconnected problems posed by the growth of online creation illustrate the predicament. First, unlike analog creations, important digital creations such as e-mails and word-processed documents are mediated and controlled by second parties. Thus, although these creations are core intellectual property, they are not treated as such. Service providers and software makers terminate or deny access to people’s digital property all the time. In addition, when one dies, some service providers refuse to grant heirs access to this property. The uneven and unclear management of these creations means that society will lose access to perhaps the greatest chronicling of human experience ever. Accordingly, this Article investigates and sets forth the theoretical foundations to explain why and how society should preserve this property. In so doing the Article finds that a second problem, which can be understood as one of control, arises.
This Article is the first in a series of works aimed at investigating the nature and extent of control one may have or exert over a work. As such, this Article begins the project by examining the normative theories behind creators’, heirs’, and society’s interests in the works. All three groups have interests in preservation, but the basis for the claims differs. In addition, an examination of the theoretical basis for these claims shows that the nature of the attention economy in conjunction with labor- and persona-based property theories support the position that in life a creator has strong claims for control over her intangible creations. Yet, the Article finds that historical and literary theory combined with recent economic theory as advanced by Professors Brett Frischmann and Mark Lemley regarding spillovers—positive externalities generated by access to ideas and information—reveals two points. First, these views support the need for better preservation of digital intellectual property insofar as it is infrastructure and has the potential for spillover effects. Second, although the creator may be best placed to manage and exert control of the works at issue, once the creator dies, literary, historical, and economic theory show that the claims for control diminish if not vanish. The explication and implications of this second point are explored elsewhere. This Article lays the groundwork for seeing that creators may need and have powerful claims for access and control over their works but that these same claims are necessarily limited by an understanding of the nature of creation and creative systems. The dividing line falls between life and death. The life and death distinction that this Article offers seeks to balance creators’ interests in control over a work and society’s interests in fostering later expressions and creations of new works. This Article examines the life side of the line.
A Complex(ity) Strategy for Breaking the Environmental Logjam (with David R. Johnson), in Breaking the LogJam: An Environmental Law for the 21st Century
NYU Environ. L. Rev. (Fall 2008)
Noveck, Beth (selected chapters)
In this essay, we explore how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) might use technology to improve the agency's level of scientific expertise and to obtain useful information sooner to inform EPA policymaking. By creating a self-reinforcing collaboration between government and networked publics, new web-based tools could help produce change within government and without - namely governmental decisions informed by better data obtained through citizen participation and civic action coordinated with governmental priorities. The agency has the opportunity to help break the logjam of environmental policymaking by developing transparent and participatory mechanisms for expert citizen participation. The key insight is not to throw open the floodgates to undifferentiated public input, but to design group-based processes that enable online communities to collaborate on finding and vetting information for agencies.
TANF Reauthorization: A New Conversation on Women and Poverty
Women of Color Policy Network
This policy brief critically assesses the effectiveness of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) policies and offers recommendations for strengthening the program's ability to provide an essential safety net for women of color and their families.
Building Bridges from Margins: The Work of Leadership in Social Change Organizations
The Leadership Quarterly
Ospina, S. and E. G. Foldy
Attention to the relational dimensions of leadership represents a new frontier of leadership research and is an expression of the growing scholarly interest in the conditions that foster collective action within and across boundaries. This article explores the antecedents of collaboration from the perspective of social change organizations engaged in processes of collaborative governance. Using a constructionist lens, the study illuminates the question how do social change leaders secure the connectedness needed for collaborative work to advance their organization's mission? The article draws on data from a national, multi-year, multi-modal qualitative study of social change organizations and their leaders. These organizations represent disenfranchised communities which aspire to influence policy makers and other social actors to change the conditions that affect their members' lives. Narrative analysis of transcripts from in-depth interviews in 38 organizations yielded five leadership practices that foster strong relational bonds either within organizations or across boundaries with others. The article describes how these practices nurture interdependence either by forging new connections, strengthening existing ones, or capitalizing on strong ones.
Social Change Leadership as Relational Leadership.
In Advancing Relational Leadership Theory. Eds., M Uhl-Bien, S Ospina. Greenwich, CT: Information Age. (First Author with E.G Foldy, W. El Hadidy, J. Dodge, A. Hofmann-Pinilla. and C. Su)
Welcome to the Neighborhood: What can Regional Science Contribute to the Study of Neighborhoods?
Journal of Regional Science
O'Regan, K. & Ellen, I.G.
We argue in this paper that neighborhoods are highly relevant for the types of issues at the heart of regional science. First, residential and economic activity takes place in particular locations, and particular neighborhoods. Many attributes of those neighborhood environments matter for this activity, from the physical amenities, to the quality of the public and private services received. Second, those neighborhoods vary in their placement in the larger region and this broader arrangement of neighborhoods is particularly important for location choices, commuting behavior and travel patterns. Third, sorting across these neighborhoods by race and income may well matter for educational and labor market outcomes, important components of a region's overall economic activity. For each of these areas we suggest a series of unanswered questions that would benefit from more attention. Focused on neighborhood characteristics themselves, there are important gaps in our understanding of how neighborhoods change - the causes and the consequences. In terms of the overall pattern of neighborhoods and resulting commuting patterns, this connects directly to current concerns about environmental sustainability and there is much need for research relevant to policy makers. And in terms of segregation and sorting across neighborhoods, work is needed on better spatial measures. In addition, housing market causes and consequences for local economic activity are under researched. We expand on each of these, finishing with some suggestions on how newly available data, with improved spatial identifiers, may enable regional scientists to answer some of these research questions.
Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare
Chicago:Health Administration Press
A.R Kovner, R. D'Aquila, D Fine
Too often in the fast-moving healthcare field, decision makers rely primarily on what has worked before. Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare explains how healthcare leaders can move from making educated guesses to using the best available information to make decisions.
Medicare Payments, Health Care Services Use, and Telemedicine Implementation Cost in Randomized Trial Comparing Telemedicine Case Management With Usual Care in Medically Underserved Patients With Diabetes Mellitus
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association
Palmas, W., Shea, S., Starren, J., Teresi, J.E., Ganz, M.L., Burton, T.M., Pashos, C.L., Blustein, J., Field, L., Morin, P.C., Izquierdo, R.E., Silver, S., Eimicke, J.P., Langiua, R.A. & Weinstock, S.
To determine whether a diabetes case management telemedicine intervention reduced healthcare expenditures, as measured by Medicare claims, and to assess the costs of developing and implementing the telemedicine intervention.
We studied 1665 participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel), a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management of diabetes to usual care. Participants were aged 55 years or older, and resided in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State.
We analyzed Medicare claims payments for each participant for up to 60 study months from date of randomization, until their death, or until December 31, 2006 (whichever happened first). We also analyzed study expenditures for the telemedicine intervention over six budget years (February 28, 2000- February 27, 2006).
Mean annual Medicare payments (SE) were similar in the usual care and telemedicine groups, $9040 ($386) and $9669 ($443) per participant, respectively (p>0.05). Sensitivity analyses, including stratification by censored status, adjustment by enrollment site, and semi-parametric weighting by probability of dropping-out, rendered similar results. Over six budget years 28 821 participant/months of telemedicine intervention were delivered, at an estimated cost of $622 per participant/month.
Telemedicine case management was not associated with a reduction in Medicare claims in this medically underserved population. The cost of implementing the telemedicine intervention was high, largely representing special purpose hardware and software costs required at the time. Lower implementation costs will need to be achieved using lower cost technology in order for telemedicine case management to be more widely used.
How to House the Homeless
Russell Sage Foundation Press
Ellen, I.G. & O'Flaherty, B. (eds.).
How to House the Homeless, editors Ingrid Gould Ellen and Brendan O’Flaherty propose that the answers entail rethinking how housing markets operate and developing more efficient interventions in existing service programs. The book critically reassesses where we are now, analyzes the most promising policies and programs going forward, and offers a new agenda for future research. How to House the Homeless makes clear the inextricable link between homelessness and housing policy. Contributor Jill Khadduri reviews the current residential services system and housing subsidy programs. For the chronically homeless, she argues, a combination of assisted housing approaches can reach the greatest number of people and, specifically, an expanded Housing Choice Voucher system structured by location, income, and housing type can more efficiently reach people at-risk of becoming homeless and reduce time spent homeless. Robert Rosenheck examines the options available to homeless people with mental health problems and reviews the cost-effectiveness of five service models: system integration, supported housing, clinical case management, benefits outreach, and supported employment. He finds that only programs that subsidize housing make a noticeable dent in homelessness, and that no one program shows significant benefits in multiple domains of life. Contributor Sam Tsemberis assesses the development and cost-effectiveness of the Housing First program, which serves mentally ill homeless people in more than four hundred cities. He asserts that the program’s high housing retention rate and general effectiveness make it a viable candidate for replication across the country. Steven Raphael makes the case for a strong link between homelessness and local housing market regulations—which affect housing affordability—and shows that the problem is more prevalent in markets with stricter zoning laws. Finally, Brendan O’Flaherty bridges the theoretical gap between the worlds of public health and housing research, evaluating the pros and cons of subsidized housing programs and the economics at work in the rental housing market and home ownership. Ultimately, he suggests, the most viable strategies will serve as safety nets—“social insurance”—to reach people who are homeless now and to prevent homelessness in the future. It is crucial that the links between effective policy and the whole cycle of homelessness—life conditions, service systems, and housing markets—be made clear now. With a keen eye on the big picture of housing policy, How to House the Homeless shows what works and what doesn’t in reducing the numbers of homeless and reaching those most at risk.
Do Economically Integrated Neighborhoods Have Economically Integrated Schools?
Howard Wial, Ha; Wolman and Margery Austin Turner, Eds, Urban and Regional Policy and it's Effects. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, pp 191-205.
Ingrid Ellen, Amy Allen Schwartz, Leanna Stiefel
The goal of this book, the first in a series, is to bring policymakers, practitioners, and scholars up to speed on the state of knowledge on various aspects of urban and regional policy. What do we know about the effectiveness of select policy approaches, reforms, or experiments on key social and economic problems facing cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas? What can we say about what works, what doesn’t, and why? And what does this knowledge and experience imply for future policy questions?
The authors take a fresh look at several different issues (e.g., economic development, education, land use) and conceptualize how each should be thought of. Once the contributors have presented the essence of what is known, as well as the likely implications, they identify the knowledge gaps that need to be filled for the successful formulation and implementation of urban and regional policy.