Does Federally Subsidized Rental Housing Depress Neighborhood Property Values?
Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, Spring 2007, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p257-280, 24p.
Ellen, I.G., Schwartz, A.E., Voicu, I. & Schill, M.H.
Few communities welcome federally subsidized rental housing, with one of the most commonly voiced fears being reductions in property values. Yet there is little empirical evidence that subsidized housing depresses neighborhood property values. This paper estimates and compares the neighborhood impacts of a broad range of federally subsidized rental housing programs, using rich data for New York City and a difference-in-difference specification of a hedonic regression model. We find that federally subsidized developments have not typically led to reductions in property values and have, in fact, led to increases in some cases. Impacts are highly sensitive to scale, though patterns vary across programs.
The Political Economy of School Choice: Support for Charter Schools Across States and School Districts
Journal of Urban Economics, July 2007, Vol. 62 Issue 1, p27-54, 28p.
Stoddard, C. & Corcoran, S.P.
Public charter schools are one of the fastest growing education reforms in the US, currently serving more than a million students. Though the movement for greater school choice is widespread, its implementation has been uneven. State laws differ greatly in the degree of latitude granted charter schools, and-holding constant state support-states and localities vary widely in the availability of and enrollment in these schools. In this paper, we use a panel of demographic, financial, and school performance data to examine the support for charters at the state and local levels. Results suggest that growing population heterogeneity and income inequality-in addition to persistently low student outcomes-are associated with greater support for charter schools. Teachers unions have been particularly effective in slowing or preventing liberal state charter legislation; however, conditional on law passage and strength, local participation in charter schools rises with the share of unionized teachers.
The Price of Female Headship: Gender, Inheritance, and Wealth Accumulation in the United States
Journal of Income Distribution, Fall2004/Winter2005, Vol. 13 Issue 3/4, p41-56, 16p.
Conley, D. & Ryvicker, M.
Female-headed households in the United States suffer from lower levels of asset ownership than their male-headed counterparts. This gap remains after controlling for the lower incomes of female heads. What, then, produces the gender discrepancy in net worth? Using longitudinal, intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we ask whether differential patterns of inheritance, savings rates, or investment yield this female-male asset gap. Results demonstrate that differential savings rates between female- and male-headed households account for the gender gap in net worth. We speculate on the financial constraints within female-headed households that account for the savings rate differential.
The Effects of Acculturation on Asthma Burden in a Community Sample of Mexican American Schoolchildren
American Journal of Public Health, Jul 2007, Vol. 97 Issue 7, p1290-1296, 7p.
Martin, M.A., Shalowitz, M.U., Mijanovich, T., Clark-Kauffman, E., Perez, E. & Berry, C.
We sought to determine whether low acculturation among Mexican American caregivers protects their children against asthma. Methods. Data were obtained from an observational study of urban pediatric asthma. Dependent variables were children's diagnosed asthma and total (diagnosed plus possible) asthma. Regression models were controlled for caregivers' level of acculturation, education, marital status, depression, life stress, and social support and children's insurance. Results. Caregivers' level of acculturation was associated with children's diagnosed asthma (P=.025) and total asthma (P=.078) in bivariate analyses. In multivariate models, protective effects of caregivers' level of acculturation were mediated by the other covariates. Independent predictors of increased diagnosed asthma included caregivers' life stress (odds ratio [OR]= 1.12, P=.005) and children's insurance, both public (OR=4.71, P=.009) and private (OR = 2.87, P=.071). Only caregiver's life stress predicted increased total asthma (OR = 1.21, P=.001). Conclusions. The protective effect of caregivers' level of acculturation on diagnosed and total asthma for Mexican American children was mediated by social factors, especially caregivers' life stress. Among acculturation measures, foreign birth was more predictive of disease status than was language use or years in country. Increased acculturation among immigrant groups does not appear to lead to greater asthma risk.
Financing Pro-poor Governance in Africa
in Karen Millet, Dele Olowu and Robert Cameron (eds), Local Governance and Poverty Reduction in Africa (Tunis: Joint Africa Institute of the African Development Bank)
Defines key lessons on financing pro-poor governance based on cases from Latin America, Asia and Africa (Colombia, Indonesia, Kenya and Uganda). The starting point for pro-poor fiscal decentralisation is that its major goals should be improved governance and performance, specifically, higher efficiency and equity in service delivery, economic development, and poverty alleviation. The enabling environment for fiscal decentralisation involves first the functions and the resources that might normally be allocated to local governments. Second, it can include alternative models and mechanisms to finance local governments, including intergovernmental transfers, markets, capital and donor financing.
Primary Care, Social Inequality, and Stroke Mortality in U.S. States--a Longitudinal Analysis, 1985-1995
Stroke Volume 34 Number 8, pages 1958-64.
Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B. & Politzer, R.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to test whether primary care reduces the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. METHODS: This study used pooled time-series cross-sectional analysis of 11 years of state-level data (n=549). Analyses controlled for education levels, unemployment, racial/ethnic composition, and percent urban. Contemporaneous and time-lagged covariates were modeled. RESULTS: Primary care was negatively associated with stroke mortality in models including all covariates (P<0.0001). The impact of income inequality on stroke mortality was reduced in the presence of primary care (P<0.0001) but disappeared with the addition of covariates (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of social policy that addresses sociodemographic determinants of health, primary care promotion may serve as a palliative strategy for combating stroke mortality and reducing the adverse impact of income inequality on health.
Income inequality, primary care, and health outcomesï¿½a critical review of the literature
Medical Care Research and Review Volume 60 Number 4, pages 407-52.
Macinko, J., Shi, L., Starfield, B. & Wulu, J.
This article critically reviews published literature on the relationship between income inequality and health outcomes. Studies are systematically assessed in terms of design, data quality, measures, health outcomes, and covariates analyzed. At least 33 studies indicate a significant association between income inequality and health outcomes, while at least 12 studies do not find such an association. Inconsistencies include the following: (1) the model of health determinants is different in nearly every study, (2) income inequality measures and data are inconsistent, (3) studies are performed on different combinations of countries and/or states, (4) the time period in which studies are conducted is not consistent, and (5) health outcome measures differ. The relationship between income inequality and health is unclear. Future studies will require a more comprehensive model of health production that includes health system covariates, sufficient sample size, and adjustment for inconsistencies in income inequality data.
The relationship between primary care, income inequality, and mortality in US States, 1980-1995.
Journal of the American Board of Family Practice Volume 16, Number 5 Sep-Oct 2003; pages 412-22.
Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B., Wulu, J., Regan, J. & Politzer, R.
OBJECTIVES: This study tests the robustness of the relationships between primary care, income inequality, and population health by (1) assessing the relationship during 4 time periods-1980, 1985, 1990 and 1995; (2) examining the independent effect of components of the primary care physician supply; (3) using 2 different measures of income inequality (Robin Hood index and Gini coefficient); and (4) testing the robustness of the association by using 5-year time-lagged independent variables. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data are derived from the Compressed Mortality Files, the US Department of Commerce and the Census Bureau, the National Center for Health Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Medical Association Physician Master File. The unit of analysis was the 50 US states over a 15-year period. STUDY DESIGN: Ecological, cross-sectional design for 4 selected years (1980, 1985, 1990, 1995), and incorporating 5-year time-lagged independent variables. The main outcome measure is age-standardized, all-cause mortality per 100,000 population in all 50 US states in all 4 time periods. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The study used secondary data from publicly available data sets. The CDC WONDER/PC software was used to obtain mortality data and directly standardize them for age to the 1980 US population. Data used to calculate the income inequality measure came from the US census population and housing summary tapes for the years 1980 to 1995. Counts of the number of households that fell into each income interval along with the total aggregate income and the median household income were obtained for each state. The Gini coefficient for each state was calculated using software developed for this purpose. RESULTS: In weighted multivariate regressions, both contemporaneous and time-lagged income inequality measures (Gini coefficient, Robin Hood Index) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (P <.05 for both measures for all time periods). Contemporaneous and time-lagged primary care physician-to-population ratios were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (P <.05 for all 4 time periods), whereas specialty care measures were associated with higher mortality (P <.05 for all time periods, except 1990, where P <.1). Among primary care subspecialties, only family medicine was consistently associated with lower mortality (P <.01 for all time periods). CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing primary care, particularly family medicine, even in states with high levels of income inequality, could lead to lower all-cause mortality in those states.
Primary Care, Social Inequalities, and All-Cause, Heart Disease, and Cancer Mortality in U.S. Counties, 1990.
American Journal of Public Health.
Shi, L., Macinko, J. Starfield, B. Politzer, R., Wulu, J. & J. Xu.
We tested the association between the availability of primary care and income inequality on several categories of mortality in US counties. Methods. We used cross-sectional analysis of data from counties (n=3081) in 1990, including analysis of variance and multivariate ordinary least squares regression. Independent variables included primary care resources, income inequality, and sociodemographics. Results. Counties with higher availability of primary care resources experienced between 2% and 3% lower mortality than counties with less primary care. Counties with high income inequality experienced between 11% and 13% higher mortality than counties with less inequality. Conclusions. Primary care resources may partially moderate the effects of income inequality on health outcomes at the county level.
Wage inequality, health care, and infant mortality in 19 industrialized countries
Social Science & Medicine Volume 58 Number 2, pages 279-292.
Macinko, J., Shi, L. & Starfield, B.
This pooled, cross-sectional, time-series study assesses the impact of health system variables on the relationship between wage inequality and infant mortality in 19 OECD countries over the period 1970-1996. Data are derived from the OECD, World Value Surveys, Luxembourg Income Study, and political economy databases. Analyses include Pearson correlation and fixed-effects multivariate regression. In year-specific and time-series analyses, the Theil measure of wage inequality (based on industrial sector wages) is positively and statistically significantly associated with infant mortality rates--even while controlling for GDP per capita. Health system variables--in particular the method of healthcare financing and the supply of physicians--significantly attenuated the effect of wage inequality on infant mortality. In fixed effects multivariate regression models controlling for GDP per capita and wage inequality, variables generally associated with better health include income per capita, the method of healthcare financing, and physicians per 1000 population. Alcohol consumption, the proportion of the population in unions, and government expenditures on health were associated with poorer health outcomes. Ambiguous effects were seen for the consumer price index, unemployment rates, the openness of the economy, and voting rates. This study provides international evidence for the impact of wage inequalities on infant mortality. Results suggest that improving aspects of the healthcare system may be one way to partially compensate for the negative effects of social inequalities on population health.
The Effects of Specialist Supply on Population Health: Assessing the Evidence
Health Affairs Volume 5, pages 97-107.
Starfield, B., Shi, L., Grover, A. & Macinko, J.
Analyses at the county level show lower mortality rates where there are more primary care physicians, but this is not the case for specialist supply. These findings confirm those of previous studies at the state and other levels. Increasing the supply of specialists will not improve the United States' position in population health relative to other industrialized countries, and it is likely to lead to greater disparities in health status and outcomes. Adverse effects from inappropriate or unnecessary specialist use may be responsible for the absence of relationship between specialist supply and mortality.
Primary care, race and mortality in the United States
Social Science & Medicine Volume 61 Number 1, pages 65-75.
Shi, L., Macinko, J., Starfield, B., Politzer, R. & J. Xu.
This study used US state-level data from 1985 to 1995 to examine the relationship of primary care resources and income inequality with all-cause mortality within the entire population, and in black and white populations. The study is a pooled ecological design with repeated measures using 11 years of state-level data (n=549). Analyses controlled for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Contemporaneous and time-lagged covariates were modeled, and all analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. In all models, primary care was associated with lower mortality. An increase of one primary care doctor per 10,000 population was associated with a reduction of 14.4 deaths per 100,000. The magnitude of primary care coefficients was higher for black mortality than for white mortality. Income inequality was not associated with mortality after controlling for state-level sociodemographic covariates. The study provides evidence that primary care resources are associated with population health and could aid in reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.
The Well-Informed Lobbyist: Information and Interest-Group Lobbying
Interest Group Politics, 6th edition CQ Press,
Interest Group Politics presents a broad spectrum of scholarship on interest groups past and present. In a time of partisan parity, when control of Congress is always within reach of the minority party at the next election, interest groups have every incentive to keep the pressure on. And they do. But the imbalance of influence that tilts toward moneyed interests is one of the cornerstones of the political system.
What does this mean for equal representation? In nineteen chapters, noted political scientists explore the role of money, technology, grassroots lobbying, issue advocacy advertising, and much more in interest group influence. Students will learn how the National Rifle Association has become one of the most effective lobbying groups in America, what opportunities the openness of the American political process has offered ethnic groups both within and outside the United States, how the role of interest groups in elections has changed (including 527's), what effect religious organizations had in the 2004 elections, and how interest groups affect Supreme Court nominations.
Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 42, No. 3, 350-372.
Recent scholarship has shown that, despite the broad representation of women in the workplace, gender inequities in organizations remain widespread. Because gender schema ”embedded ways of thinking about men and women” contribute to this phenomenon, addressing such mental models should be a part of gender equity initiatives. This article provides data that suggest that some individuals hold within themselves quite contradictory schemas of men and of women. It then illustrates how individuals can use these internal inconsistencies to push through superficial understandings of gender to more complex ones. By facilitating this learning process in training and other kinds of organizational events, change agents can strengthen organizational efforts to achieve gender equity.
Race, Segregation, and Physicians' Participation in Medicaid
The Milbank Quarterly Vol. 84, Iss. 2, June
Greene, J., Blustein, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
Many studies have explored the extent to which physicians’ characteristics and Medicaid program factors influence physicians’ decisions to accept Medicaid patients. In this article, we turn to patient race/ethnicity and residential segregation as potential influences. Using the 2000/2001 Community Tracking Study and other sources we show that physicians are significantly less likely to participate in Medicaid in areas where the poor are nonwhite and in areas that are racially segregated. Surprisingly—and contrary to the prevailing Medicaid participation theory—we find no link between poverty segregation and Medicaid participation when controlling for these racial factors. Accordingly, this study contributes to an accumulating body of circumstantial evidence that patient race influences physicians’ choices, which in turn may contribute to racial disparities in access to health care.
Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students
Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 17-49. March 29,
Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
Public schools across the United States are educating an increasing number and diversity of immigrant students. Unfortunately, little is known about their performance relative to native-born students and the extent to which the "nativity gap" might be explained by school and demographic characteristics. This article takes a step toward filling that void using data from New York City where 17 percent of elementary and middle school students are immigrants. We explore disparities in performance between foreign-born and native-born students on reading and math tests in three waysï¿½using levels (unadjusted scores), "value-added" scores (adjusted for prior performance), and an education production function. While unadjusted levels and value-added measures often indicate superior performance among immigrants, disparities are substantially explained by student and school characteristics. Further, while the nativity gap differs for students from different world regions, disparities are considerably diminished in fully specified models. We conclude with implications for urban schools in the United States.
Separate and Unequal Care in New York City
Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, Vol. 9, Number 1.
Calman, N.S., Golub, M., Ruddock, C., Le, L. & Kaplan, S.A.
Bronx Health REACH, a coalition of community- and faith-based groups, health care providers, and an academic institution, recently examined the causes of racial and ethnic health disparities in the southwest Bronx and identified separate systems of care for uninsured and publicly insured patients, who are predominantly people of color, and those with private insurance. We found evidence that patients are sorted into segregated pathways of care, a system of medical apartheid in which differential care contributes to disparities in health care and health outcomes.
Women of Color in New York City: The Challenges of the New Global Economy
First Annual Status of Women of Color Report.
The first Status of Women of Color Report originated out of the need to provide data and research focusing on women of color. By drawing attention to the trends seen in income, unemployment, welfare, and incarceration for women of color in New York city , this report summarizes their achievements and lack of it during the 1990's.
Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy
Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report.
Stafford, W.W. & Salas, D.
Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.
Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis
In Carol Camp Yeakey, Ed., Neighborhoods, Schools, and Social Inequality, Elsevier, Inc.
Ellen, I.G., O'Regan, K., Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
Racial segregation in America's schools remains persistently and disturbingly high, despite decades of institutional and policy changes. This paper considers one recent change common to many urban school districts - immigration - and examines whether and how the presence of a large number of immigrant students affects racial segregation. Exploiting a student-level data set including all elementary and middle school students in New York City's public schools, sixteen percent of whom are immigrants, we conduct a series of descriptive and exploratory analysis of possible avenues of influence. While it is unclear ex ante, both theoretically and compositionally, whether the presence of immigrants should increase or decrease inter-racial interaction, our results point to a decrease. Racial stratification of foreign-born students is generally higher than that of their native-born counterparts, and this is not solely attributable to income or language-skill differences. And while this heightened segregation decreases with time in the school system, the foreign-born/native-born differential is never eliminated. Importantly, we do find that there are very large differences within the immigrant population. Thus, the effect of immigrants on patterns of racial interaction in any district will depend crucially not only on the race of the immigrants, but also on their particular country of origin.