Race, Class, Gender & Diversity
School Efficiency and Student Sub-groups: Is a Good School Good for Everyone?
Peabody Journal of Education
Schwartz, A, Kim, D.Y., Stiefel, L. & Zabel, J.
State and federal accountability reforms are putting considerable pressure on schools to increase the achievement of historically low-performing groups of students and to close test score gaps. In this article, we exploit the differences among the large number of elementary schools in New York City to examine how much schools vary in the efficiency of the education they provide to subgroups. In addition, we examine the extent to which observable school characteristics can account for the variation that exists. We find that New York City elementary schools vary in how well they educate poor students compared to nonpoor students and Asian and White students compared to Black and Hispanic students. The disparities in school efficiency measures between boys and girls are lower than for the other subgroups. There is no conclusive evidence about which school resources and characteristics are associated with more or less efficient education across all subgroups.
Dueling Schemata: Dialectical Sensemaking About Gender
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol. 42, No. 3, 350-372.
Recent scholarship has shown that, despite the broad representation of women in the workplace, gender inequities in organizations remain widespread. Because gender schema ”embedded ways of thinking about men and women” contribute to this phenomenon, addressing such mental models should be a part of gender equity initiatives. This article provides data that suggest that some individuals hold within themselves quite contradictory schemas of men and of women. It then illustrates how individuals can use these internal inconsistencies to push through superficial understandings of gender to more complex ones. By facilitating this learning process in training and other kinds of organizational events, change agents can strengthen organizational efforts to achieve gender equity.
Race, Segregation, and Physicians' Participation in Medicaid
The Milbank Quarterly Vol. 84, Iss. 2, June
Greene, J., Blustein, J. & Weitzman, B.C.
Many studies have explored the extent to which physicians’ characteristics and Medicaid program factors influence physicians’ decisions to accept Medicaid patients. In this article, we turn to patient race/ethnicity and residential segregation as potential influences. Using the 2000/2001 Community Tracking Study and other sources we show that physicians are significantly less likely to participate in Medicaid in areas where the poor are nonwhite and in areas that are racially segregated. Surprisingly—and contrary to the prevailing Medicaid participation theory—we find no link between poverty segregation and Medicaid participation when controlling for these racial factors. Accordingly, this study contributes to an accumulating body of circumstantial evidence that patient race influences physicians’ choices, which in turn may contribute to racial disparities in access to health care.
Do Good High Schools Produce Good College Students? Early Evidence From New York City
In Advances in Applied Microeconomics, Volume 14, Improving School Accountability: Check-Ups or Choice, edited by T. J. Gronberg and D.W. Jansen,
Schwartz, A.E & Bel Hadj Amor, H. & Stiefel, L.
We examine variation in high school and college outcomes across New York City public high schools. Using data on 80,000 students who entered high school in 1998 and following them into the City University of New York, we investigate whether schools that produce successful high school students also produce successful college students. We also explore differences in performance across sex, race, and immigration, and we briefly explore selection issues. Specifically, we estimate student-level regressions with school fixed effects, controlling for student characteristics, to identify better and worse performing schools based on state mandated exams, graduation, and college performance.
Is there a Nativity Gap? New Evidence on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Students
Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 17-49. March 29,
Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
Public schools across the United States are educating an increasing number and diversity of immigrant students. Unfortunately, little is known about their performance relative to native-born students and the extent to which the "nativity gap" might be explained by school and demographic characteristics. This article takes a step toward filling that void using data from New York City where 17 percent of elementary and middle school students are immigrants. We explore disparities in performance between foreign-born and native-born students on reading and math tests in three waysï¿½using levels (unadjusted scores), "value-added" scores (adjusted for prior performance), and an education production function. While unadjusted levels and value-added measures often indicate superior performance among immigrants, disparities are substantially explained by student and school characteristics. Further, while the nativity gap differs for students from different world regions, disparities are considerably diminished in fully specified models. We conclude with implications for urban schools in the United States.
Separate and Unequal Care in New York City
Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, Vol. 9, Number 1.
Calman, N.S., Golub, M., Ruddock, C., Le, L. & Kaplan, S.A.
Bronx Health REACH, a coalition of community- and faith-based groups, health care providers, and an academic institution, recently examined the causes of racial and ethnic health disparities in the southwest Bronx and identified separate systems of care for uninsured and publicly insured patients, who are predominantly people of color, and those with private insurance. We found evidence that patients are sorted into segregated pathways of care, a system of medical apartheid in which differential care contributes to disparities in health care and health outcomes.
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health: A View from the South Bronx
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2006; 17:116-127.
Kaplan S.A., Calman N.S., Golub M., Davis J.H. & Billings J.
This study seeks to understand the perspective of Black and Hispanic/Latino residents of the South Bronx, New York, on the causes of persistent racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes. In particular, it focuses on how people who live in this community perceive and interact with the health care system. Findings from 9 focus groups with 110 participants revealed a deep and pervasive distrust of the health care system and a sense of being disrespected, exacerbated by difficulties that patients experience in communicating with their providers. The paper suggests how health care institutions might respond to these perceptions.
Women of Color in New York City: The Challenges of the New Global Economy
First Annual Status of Women of Color Report.
The first Status of Women of Color Report originated out of the need to provide data and research focusing on women of color. By drawing attention to the trends seen in income, unemployment, welfare, and incarceration for women of color in New York city , this report summarizes their achievements and lack of it during the 1990's.
Women Of Color In New York City:Still Invisible In Policy
Second Annual Status of Women of Color Report.
Stafford, W.W. & Salas, D.
Demography is not destiny. While groups of color - Asians, Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans - have emerged as New York City's new majority, large segments of the groups remain burdened by many of the historical problems associated with disadvantaged minorities. This report highlights the problems faced by lower-income women of color, especially single mothers. Often bypassed during the economic boom of the 1990s, these women have found that employment opportunities have all but evaporated in the current economic malaise. The elimination of federal welfare entitlements have only served to exacerbate these problems. To read more click on the link below.
Berkeley, CA : University of California Press,
As recalled in Honky, Dalton Conley's childhood has all of the classic elements of growing up in America. But the fact that he was one of the few white boys in a mostly black and Puerto Rican neighborhood on Manhattan's Lower East Side makes Dalton's childhood unique.
At the age of three, he couldn't understand why the infant daughter of the black separatists next door couldn't be his sister, so he kidnapped her. By the time he was a teenager, he realized that not even a parent's devotion could protect his best friend from a stray bullet. Years after the privilege of being white and middle class allowed Conley to leave the projects, his entertaining memoir allows us to see how race and class impact us all. Perfectly pitched and daringly original, Honky is that rare book that entertains even as it informs.
Toward a More Public Discussion of the Ethics of Federal Social Program Evaluation
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp 824-852.
Federal social program evaluation has blossomed over the past quarter century. Despite this growth, there has been little accompanying public debate on research ethics. This essay explores the origins and the implications of this relative silence on ethical matters. It reviews the federal regulations that generally govern research ethics, and recounts the history whereby the evaluation of federal programs was specifically exempted from the purview of those regulations. Through a discussion of a recent evaluation that raised ethical concerns, the essay poses - but does not answer - three questions: (1) Are there good reasons to hold federal social program evaluations to different standards than those that apply to other research?; (2) If so, what ethical standards should be used to access such evaluations?; and (3) Should a formal mechanism be developed to ensure that federal social program evaluations are conducted ethically?
Racial Segregation in Multiethnic Schools: Adding Immigrants to the Analysis
In Carol Camp Yeakey, Ed., Neighborhoods, Schools, and Social Inequality, Elsevier, Inc.
Ellen, I.G., O'Regan, K., Schwartz, A.E. & Stiefel, L.
Racial segregation in America's schools remains persistently and disturbingly high, despite decades of institutional and policy changes. This paper considers one recent change common to many urban school districts - immigration - and examines whether and how the presence of a large number of immigrant students affects racial segregation. Exploiting a student-level data set including all elementary and middle school students in New York City's public schools, sixteen percent of whom are immigrants, we conduct a series of descriptive and exploratory analysis of possible avenues of influence. While it is unclear ex ante, both theoretically and compositionally, whether the presence of immigrants should increase or decrease inter-racial interaction, our results point to a decrease. Racial stratification of foreign-born students is generally higher than that of their native-born counterparts, and this is not solely attributable to income or language-skill differences. And while this heightened segregation decreases with time in the school system, the foreign-born/native-born differential is never eliminated. Importantly, we do find that there are very large differences within the immigrant population. Thus, the effect of immigrants on patterns of racial interaction in any district will depend crucially not only on the race of the immigrants, but also on their particular country of origin.
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Diagnosed and Possible Undiagnosed Asthma Among Public Schoolchildren in Chicago
American Journal of Public Health.
Quinn, K., Shalowitz, M., Berry, C., Mijanovich, T. & Wolf, R.
We examined racial and ethnic disparities in the total potential burden of asthma in low-income, racially/ethnically heterogeneous Chicago schools, Methods. We used the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen Plus (BPAS ) and the Spanish BPAS , validated, caregiver-completed respiratory questionnaires, to identify asthma and possible asthma among students in 14 racially/ethnically diverse public elementary schools. Results. Among 11 490 children, we demonstrated a high lifetime prevalence (12.2%) as well as racial and ethnic disparities in diagnosed asthma, but no disparities in prevalences of possible undiagnosed asthma. Possible asthma cases boost the total potential burden of asthma to more than 1 in 3 non-Hispanic Black and Puerto Rican children. Conclusions. There are significant racial and ethnic disparities in diagnosed asthma among inner-city schoolchildren in Chicago. However, possible undiagnosed asthma appears to have similar prevalences across racial/ethnic groups and contributes to a high total potential asthma burden in each group studied. A better understanding of underdiagnosis is needed to address gaps in asthma care and intervention for low-income communities.
A Randomized Trial of Early Discharge and Nurse Specialist Transitional Follow Up Care of High Risk Childbearing Women
Nursing Research, September-October.
York, R., Brown, L., Samuels, Finkler, S.A., et al.
In a randomised clinical trial, quality of health care as reflected in patient outcomes and cost of health care was compared between two groups of high-risk childbearing women: women diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension in pregnancy. The control group was discharged routinely from the hospital. The intervention group was discharged early using a model of clinical nurse specialist transitional follow-up care. During pregnancy, the intervention group had significantly fewer rehospitalisations than the control group. For infants of diabetic women enrolled in the study during their pregnancy, low birth weight was three times more prevalent in the control group than in the intervention group. The postpartum hospital charges for the intervention group were also significantly less than for the control group. The mean total hospital charges for the intervention group were 44 percent less than for the control group. The mean cost of the clinical specialist follow-up care was two percent of the total hospital charges for the control group. A net savings of $13,327 was realised for each mother-infant dyad discharged early from the hospital.
Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment
Urban Studies, Jun98, Vol. 35 Issue 7, p1187-1205, 19p, 8 charts, 3 graphs, 1 map
O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
This paper synthesises a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It broadens the focus beyond transport and the 'friction of space' and expands the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking 'access' to youth labour market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data relating access to employment outcomes for black youth at the metropolitan level. Access is broadly defined to include traditional measures of geographical distance, as well as measures of social isolation or social access. Metropolitan areas in which the black poor are more spatially isolated are also found to have higher black youth unemployment rates. The second body of evidence relies on the same type of metropolitan measures, combined with individual data on youth living with at least one parent. When individual and family characteristics are controlled for, and white and Hispanic youth are also considered, metropolitan measures of social access exert distinguishable effects upon youth employment-youth living in urban areas in which they have less residential contact with whites or the non-poor are less likely to be employed. The final piece of analysis links the individual records of such youth to tract-level measures of access, both social (neighbourhood composition variables) and geographical (job-access measures). This is accomplished through the creation of a unique data set at the Bureau of the Census. Again, after controlling for individual and family characteristics, the residential conditions of youth affect their employment. Ceteris paribus, youth living in census tracts with fewer employed adults, with fewer whites, and which are further from jobs are less likely to be employed. Results suggest that the overall effects of space on employment outcomes are substantial, explaining 10-40 per cent of the observed racial differences in employment in...
A New White Flight? The Dynamics of Neighborhood Change in the 1980s
in Nancy Foner, Ruben G. Rumbaut, and Steven J. Gold, eds., Immigration Research for a New Century: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. New York City: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 423-441.
The rapid rise in immigration over the past few decades has transformed the American social landscape, while the need to understand its impact on society has led to a burgeoning research literature. Predominantly non-European and of varied cultural, social, and economic backgrounds, the new immigrants present analytic challenges that cannot be wholly met by traditional immigration studies. Immigration Research for a New Century demonstrate show sociology, anthropology, history, political science, economics, and other disciplines intersect to answer questions about today's immigrants. In Part I, leading scholars examine the emergence of an interdisciplinary body of work that incorporates such topics as the social construction of race, the importance of ethnic self-help and economic niches, the influence of migrant-homeland ties, and the types of solidarity and conflict found among migrant populations. The authors also explore the social and national origins of immigration scholars themselves, many of whom came of age in an era of civil rights and ethnic reaffirmation, and may also be immigrants or children of immigrants. Together these essays demonstrate how social change, new patterns of immigration, and the scholars' personal backgrounds have altered the scope and emphases of the research literature,allowing scholars to ask new questions and to see old problems in new ways. Part II contains the work of a new generation of immigrant scholars, reflecting the scope of a field bolstered by different disciplinary styles. These essays explore the complex variety of the immigrant experience, ranging from itinerant farmworkers to Silicon Valley engineers. The demands of the American labor force, ethnic, racial, and gender stereotyping, and state regulation are all shown to play important roles in the economic adaptation of immigrants. The ways in which immigrants participate politically, their relationships among themselves, their attitudes toward naturalization and citizenship, and their own sense of cultural identity are also addressed. Immigration Research for a New Century examines the complex effects that immigration has had not only on American society but on scholarship itself, and offers the fresh insights of a new generation of immigration researchers.
Stable, Racial Integration in the Contemporary United States: An Empirical Overview
Journal of Urban Affairs 20 (1), pp. 27-42.
Part of a special section on stable racial integration. A study was conducted to examine the extent and stability of racial integration in the U.S. Findings indicated that although integrated neighborhoods containing blacks and whites are considerably less stable than more homogeneous communities, a majority remains integrated over time. In addition, integration appears to be growing more viable, with racially integrated communities having a higher probability of being stable during the 1980s than the 1970s.
Race-Based Neighborhood Projection: A Proposed Framework for Understanding New Data on Racial Integration
Urban Studies 37(9), Aug 2000, pp. 1513-1533.
This paper outlines the race-based, neighbourhood projection hypothesis which holds that, in choosing neighbourhoods, households care less about present racial composition than they do about expectations about future neighbourhood conditions, such as school quality, property values and crime. Race remains relevant, however, since households tend to associate a growing minority presence with structural decline. Using a unique data-set that links households to their neighbourhoods, this paper estimates both exit and entry models and then constructs a simple simulation model that predicts the course of racial change in different communities. Doing so, the paper concludes that the empirical evidence is more consistent with the race-based projection hypothesis than with other common explanations for neighbourhood racial transition.
If There is a Post Period, Is There a Post Racism?
in Impacts of Racism on White Americans. Benjamin Bowser (ed.), (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications).
International Human Rights Instruments and Racial Discrimination in the United States
International Policy Review, Vol. 6, (1) .