Faculty Research

The Behavioral Dimension of Governing Inter-Organizational Goal Directed Networks: Managing the Unity/Diversity Tension
Network management research documents how network members engage in activities to advance their own goals. However, this literature offers little insight into the nature of work that aims to advance the goals of the network as a “whole.” By examining the behavioral dimension of network governance, this article identifies a specific tension that network leaders address to effectively govern networks: although unity and diversity are essential to network performance, each makes contradictory demands which require attention. Findings from four case studies of immigrant networks in the United States point to three activities representing mechanisms that staff of network administrative organizations use to address this (network level) managerial tension. The study proposes that unity versus diversity represents a distinct challenge to the governance of networks that requires strategic action at the whole-network level and merits further study.

Capstone: In the Field

Unrepresented Litigants' Bill of Rights for New York City Family Court (2011)

Faculty: Ana Oliveira, Dennis Smith

Team: Diana Benton, Rachael Goldstein, Jessica Harris, Amalea Smirniotopoulos

Legal Information for Families Today (LIFT) provides support and services to litigants navigating the Family Court system with­out an attorney. LIFT recognized that unrepresented litigants often do not understand their basic rights, creating a significant obstacle to their success in court. The Capstone team helped LIFT develop the first Unrepresented Litigants' Bill of Rights and provided recommenda­tions for the implementation and dissemi­nation of the document. Using surveys, interviews, and focus groups with unrep­resented litigants and court staff, the Capstone team researched how much liti­gants know about their rights, and whether the Litigants' Bill of Rights could be used in Family Court. The Bill of Rights and final report will help LIFT improve its services in Family Court and provide rec­ommendations for how to improve the overall court process.

Alumni in Action

Chris Manning Assistant Commissioner Bureau of Intergovernmental Affairs, NYC Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene

As an undergraduate, Chris Manning studied public health. After finishing college he worked at the American Heart Association as a health educator and over time, he began to get more involved in the organization’s advocacy work. In doing so, it soon occurred to him that he “could impact far more people by working on one good public policy” than by conducting the countless community presentations that he did for his job. During that time he also made two key observations that have shaped his career ever since. Manning first noticed that there seemed to be two different groups of people in his field: public health professionals to whom the political process is mostly foreign, and policy experts and lobbyists who understand a good deal about political processes but much less about public health.

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The field was lacking people who had "equal experience in both areas and a solid reputation on each side," Manning explains. He also noticed that while large nonprofits like the American Heart Association have the money and resources to commit towards influencing policy, these groups make up only a small part of the nonprofit health sector. For smaller groups, Manning observed that “no one has really been able to identify a role for them in the government process,” helping them to “become policy makers, not policy takers.” Manning decided he wanted to be someone who understood both politics and public health and hoped that after gaining a good deal of balanced experience he could later consult on how to make space for nonprofits in the policy arena. Armed with a bachelor’s degree in public health and several years experience in the nonprofit health sector, it was clear to Manning that the next step was to get a master’s degree with a policy focus. He came to Wagner and created his own specialization in public affairs by taking “the best of the management classes as well as the best of the policy classes.” He appreciated that “Wagner didn’t pigeon-hole you in one area.” A multidisciplinary approach “really allowed me to be well rounded,” he says. While in school Manning worked at Wagner’s Center for Health and Public Service Research and after graduating he joined Mayor Bloomberg’s Office of City Legislative Affairs where he worked for two and a half years on health, environmental, and housing issues. In 2006 he moved to the city’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) where he currently serves as Assistant Commissioner for the department’s Bureau of Intergovernmental Affairs. The DOHMH is a place that definitely provides Manning a chance to build a comprehensive set of skills. “The vantage point I have from which to see how government operates is pretty hard to beat,” he says. His office operates in six major areas: he and his staff of six manage all of the department’s relationships with elected officials on the city, state, and federal levels; they develop, manage and promote the department’s legislative agenda – from initial concept and bill drafting, to lobbying and advocacy; they track and respond to legislation on all levels of government (and there are currently more than 1,800 pieces of relevant legislation on the state level); they coordinate the department’s presence at legislative hearings, selecting appropriate delegates and helping to frame the message; they provide strategic guidance to programs around the agency to ensure nothing will become a political issue that shouldn’t; and they oversee community affairs for the agency, representing DOHMH at community board meetings and collecting information on the local level. Manning works closely with DOHMH’s commissioner and admits that with so much responsibility the environment can be very high pressure at times. “The decisions I weigh in on are often all or nothing,” he says, which makes the job stressful. He notes that there is rarely an obvious right answer and the best choice sometimes doesn’t become apparent until after the fact. Nevertheless, Manning appreciates having the opportunity to have a voice in decision making. “It’s fascinating to be a part of the conversations that happen,” he says. With health issues changing all the time, he explains that “the world dictates what I do each day.” And Manning knows that whatever decisions are made will be transparent and open to criticism. “The things you read on Tuesday in the newspaper are the things I was working on on Monday,” he points out. And while he concedes that “no one comes into this job knowing exactly what they’re supposed to do,” there is plenty of opportunity for growth. “I’ve become more comfortable over time with taking information in, thinking critically, and making a recommendation,” he says. Manning has gained a good deal of experience at DOHMH, but he is in no hurry to leave. “I’ll stay until I stop experiencing new things and facing new challenges,” he says. For as long as he does, DOHMH will be lucky to have him, with his solid understanding of both the world of public health and the politics of government.

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