What Can Be Done About Hospital Readmissions? – Is Home Care Part of the Solution


posted by Joel Wittman

A comprehensive analysis of Medicare claims data demonstrates that Medicare payments more than double when the beneficiary’s care contains at least one hospital visit.  A report by the Alliance for Home Health Quality and Innovation examined the effects of hospital admissions and readmissions on Medicare expenditures.

Hospital readmissions play a key role in the amount Medicare spends per patient per episode.  The research aims to more fully explain how hospital readmissions affect the Medicare episode payment and to provide guidance on the Medicare home health benefit.  The data will provide information on to lawmakers as they look to revamp the Medicare fee-for-service payment system and eliminate unnecessary spending on avoidable hospitalizations.

In post-acute care episodes, patients whose episodes contained at least one readmission cost Medicare twice as much – roughly $33,000 compared to $15,000.  When the number of chronic conditions per patient increases, so does the average number of readmissions, suggesting that a more complex patient is more likely to be readmitted.  Services such as home health may be able to reduce the number of unplanned readmissions for some clinically appropriate patients by caring for them in home health and improving coordination and continuity of care.

There are interesting trends when an episode contains an admission.  With regard to chronic conditions, the severity of the primary chronic condition, rather than the number of conditions, plays a more significant role in the impact on Medicare payment for the episode.  For example, an episode with a primary chronic condition of diabetes and a prior admission generates a Medicare episode payment nearly three times that of a diabetes episode without a prior admission.  This suggest that better management of low-severity chronic conditions (as well as high-severity conditions), which can be provided by home health care, may limit prior admissions for pre-acute episodes or even prevent some hospital admissions and subsequent post-acute care.  As the severity of a chronic condition increases, so does the proportion of episodes in non post-acute care episodes.  However, when patient with low-severity chronic conditions require a hospital admission, the payment per episode nearly quadruples since the cost of caring for these patients is relatively low without the readmission.

The data suggest that better management of chronic disease through home health intervention could enable more patients to remain out of the hospital following an initial admission.  With clinically appropriate and effective care, patients have the potential to avoid some unnecessary admissions altogether, ultimately saving Medicare and taxpayers a significant amount.  Home health care combines the right mix of care management, prevention training, and close observation to significantly reduce hospital admissions.

A program conducted in upstate New York generated some positive results.  See below:

A group of hospitals in upstate New York have been able to cut inpatient readmissions by 25 percent as the result of a home visit program, reported the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.

The collaboration between Rochester General Hospital and three other area facilities not only cut readmissions over 30 days but also cut down readmissions over a 60-day period, the article noted.

Reduction of readmissions is critical particularly for hospitals as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services intends to cut payments for excess numbers of patients readmitted within 30 days of discharge for congestive heart failure, heart attacks and pneumonia. According to research, up to 75 percent of hospital readmissions may be avoidable, Consumer Reports magazine noted.  Specific cost savings from the initiative were not immediately disclosed but could be as much as $100 saved for every dollar invested. “The cost of the intervention is measured in hundreds of dollars,” said Martin Lustick, corporate medical director for Excellus BlueCross Blue Shield. “The cost of a readmission is upward of $10,000.”

The program, known as Care Transitions Intervention, was conducted in coordination with the hospitals, local home health agencies, Excellus and the Monroe Plan for Medical Care, a Medicaid managed care program, according to the article. State and federal grants will allow the initiative to expand.

Joel Wittman is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Wagner School of Public Service of New York University.  He is the proprietor of both Health Care Mergers and Acquisitions and The Wittman Group, two organizations that provide management advisory services to companies in the post-acute health care industry. He can be reached at joel.wittman@verizon.net.