Cities

Performance Management in New York City: COMPSTAT and the Revolution in Police Management

Performance Management in New York City: COMPSTAT and the Revolution in Police Management
in Quicker, Better, Cheaper? Managing Performance in American Government, ed. Dall Forsythe. Albany: Suny Press,

Bratton, W. & Smith, D.C.
01/01/2001

Scholars may argue about the effectiveness of the "reinvention movement" at the state and federal level. At the local level, the managers of urban police forces have in fact reinvented American police administration, and in doing so have contributed to dramatic reductions in crime all across the nation. The story of this reinvention is complex, but central to it is a radical shift in the way police organizations strategically use information about performance to achieve greater managerial accountability. Because these new performance management techniques were pioneered in New York City in the mid-1990s, the development and implementation of Compstat by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) is a valuable case study of this new approach to policing.

Race, Class and Social Control in the Streets

Race, Class and Social Control in the Streets
Sociological Forum. 2001, Vol. 16(4), pp. 759-772.

Conley, D. & Ryvicker, M.
01/01/2001

Jane Jacobs has recently become the most popular, pop sociologist around. There has been a spiked resurgence of media interest in her 1961 urban studies classic, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. This may be due partly to the recent release of her new book, The Nature of Economies. But there is probably something more to it. For journalists, Jacobs' account of the neighborhood life of New York City's Greenwich Village of the 1950s seems to induce nostalgic longings for a greater sense of community. The bustling, narrow streets Jacobs describes were filled with both small shops and tenement residences, with hoards of pedestrians engaged in both business and sociability, and with strangers and lifelong inhabitants alike. This apparent chaos was actually a ballet of multitudes and Jacobs uncovered the latent order that undergirded the community.

Tax and the City

Tax and the City
in Re-thinking the Urban Agenda, John Mollenkopf and Ken Emerson, eds., Century Foundation, pp. 63-74.

Schwartz, A.E.
01/01/2001

The culmination of a year-long lecture series cosponsored by The Century Foundation and the City University of New York Graduate Center's Center for Urban Research, 'Rethinking the Urban Agenda' takes up the challenge provided by a changing of the guard in New York City government-the election of a new mayor and city council-to outline a new conceptual and political road map for New York City's future and, in many important respects, for the future of urban America.

The New York Urban League Survey: Black New York-On Edge, but Optimistic

The New York Urban League Survey: Black New York-On Edge, but Optimistic
State of Black America (National Urban League).

Stafford, W.W.
01/01/2001

In the waning decades of the 20 century, New York City was transformed from a magnet for U.S.- and Caribbean-born blacks to the center of the Diaspora of people of African descent. From Ethiopia to Panama, from Ghana to Brazil, immigrants of African descent streamed into the city's neighborhoods, enriching black culture with their languages and religions, and extending the range of black political interests.

Urban Health: Is the City Infected?

Urban Health: Is the City Infected?
Medicine and Humanity. London: King's Fund,

Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2001

The city is, at once, a center for disease and poor health and also a place for hope, cures and good health. From the earliest times, the city has attracted the poor and been the target of the plague, as well as war. Likewise, the health care industry has always been part of the economic base of cities - from Lourdes, in France, to Rochester, Minnesota, to megacities around the world. With its highly disproportionate share of health resources, e.g., hospitals, physicians, nurses and social services, the big city is a center of excellence in medicine. Yet, as Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet once noted, "For all of its rational efficiency and benevolent intent, the city is likely to be the death of us." Are cities socially infected breeding grounds for disease? Or do they represent critical spatial entities for promotion of population health? I propose to begin with a global view of urban health and disease and the challenge this poses for public health today. Next, I examine some evidence for the hypothesis that population health in cities is relatively poor. Finally, I suggest that the more pertinent question is not whether the city is unhealthy or healthy but rather the extent to which we can alleviate the problems posed by inequalities of income and wealth - in the city as well as outside of it.

Analysis of Selection Effects in New York City's Medicaid Managed Care Population

Analysis of Selection Effects in New York City's Medicaid Managed Care Population
Journal of Urban Health. (December 2000): 625-644. Dec

Billings, J., Mijanovich, T. & Cantor, J.
12/01/2000

It is becoming increasingly apparent that over the next several years the majority of Medicaid patients in many states will become enrolled in managed care plans, some voluntarily, but most as the result of mandatory initiatives. An important issue related to this development is the extent to which this movement to managed care is accompanied by serious selection effects, either across the board during the phase in or among individual plans or plan types with full-scale implementation. This paper examines selection effects in New York City between 1993 and 1997 during the voluntary enrollment period prior to implementation of mandatory enrollment pursuant to a Section 1115 waiver. No substantial selection bias was documented between patients entering managed care and those remaining in the fee-for-service system among the largest rate groups, although some selection effect was found among plans and plan types (with investor-owned plans enrolling patients with lower prior utilization and expenses).

Project Report: Population Aging and Longevity in World Cities

Project Report: Population Aging and Longevity in World Cities
Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership Newsletter, Vol. 26, fall

Rodwin, V.G.
01/01/2000

Improvements in health care and declining birth rates have combined to create rapidly aging populations throughout the industrialized world. By 2020, for example, nearly seventeen percent of the US population is expected to be over the age of sixty-five. In Japan that mark has already been passed, with more than one-quarter of the population expected to be over sixty-five by 2020. At the same time, the world's population is increasingly concentrated in urban areas: the United Nations estimates that by 2025, sixty-one percent of the world's population will live in cities. As both urbanization and population aging increase, we will need models of how to accommodate this population shift and examples to emulate in dealing with these phenomena.

Racial/Ethnic Identity, Congruence with the Social Context, and the Transition to High School

Racial/Ethnic Identity, Congruence with the Social Context, and the Transition to High School
Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(5), 587-602,

French, S., Seidman, E., Allen, L. & Aber, J.L.
01/01/2000

The transition to high school may serve as a race/ethnicity consciousness-raising experience that stimulates the development of one's racial/ethnic identity depending on newcomers' racial/ethnic congruence with the student body and staff, as well as their perceived social transactions with the new school. The nature of this development was tested within samples of poor, urban, Black, White, and Latino students (n = 144). Racial/ethnic identity (group–esteem and exploration) and perceived transactions with school (academic hassles, participation, and social support) were assessed at the end of both the year prior to the transition and the transition year. The results suggested that changes over the transition to senior high school served as a race/ethnicity consciousness-raising experience for both Black and European American students but in dramatically different ways.

The Internet Backbone and the American Metropolis

The Internet Backbone and the American Metropolis
Information Society, Jan-March, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p35-47, 13p.

Moss, M. L. & Townsend, A.
01/01/2000

Despite the rapid growth of advanced telecommunications services, there is a lack of knowledge about the geographic diffusion of these new technologies. The Internet presents an important challenge to communications researchers, as it threatens to redefine the production and delivery of vital services including finance, retailing, and education. This article seeks to address the gap in the current literature by analyzing the development of Internet backbone networks in the United States between 1997 and 1999. We focus upon the intermetropolitan links that have provided transcontinental data transport services since the demise of the federally subsidized networks deployed in the 1970s and 1980s. We find that a select group of seven highly interconnected metropolitan areas consistently dominated the geography of national data networks, despite massive investment in this infrastructure over the study period. Furthermore, while prosperous and internationally oriented American cities lead the nation in adopting and deploying Internet technologies, interior regions and economically distressed cities have failed to keep up. As information-based industries and services account for an increasing share of economic activity, this evidence suggests that the Internet may aggravate the economic disparities among regions, rather than level them. Although the capacity of the backbone system has slowly diffused throughout the metropolitan system, the geographic structure of interconnecting links has changed little. Finally, the continued persistence of the metropolis as the center for telecommunications networks illustrates the need for a more sophisticated understanding of the interaction between societies and technological innovations.

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