Economics

Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia

Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Issue 2, p1-114, 114p.

Furman, J. & Stiglitz, J.E.
01/01/1998

Presents information on the financial crisis in East Asia. Causes of the crisis; Contrasting perspectives on East Asia's miracle and crisis; Economic impact of the financial and capital account liberalization of the 1980s to East Asia.

Issues of Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Infrastructure in the Metro East Coast (MEC) Region of the US

Issues of Climate Change and Its Impacts on the Infrastructure in the Metro East Coast (MEC) Region of the US
Report of the MEC Infrastructure Working Group, Columbia University, March .

Jacob, K. & Zimmerman, R.
01/01/1998

The infrastructure of the Metro East Coast region (MEC, with New York City at its core) is the largest, oldest, densest, and busiest in the nation. It serves some 20 million people and built assets exceed $1 trillion. Currently there is considerable stress on the system with key problems identified as: undercapacity, underinvestment, inconsistent management suburban sprawl, and lack of long-term integrated region-wide planning. These problems are exacerbated by fragmentation of governance across competing jurisdictions. Unclear funding mechanisms, spotty economic performance, and deferred infrastructure maintenance are severe stress factors. Spatial and functional inter-connectedness between different types of infrastructure allows failures to cascade through the system - at times even shutting down substantial segments, all at a high societal cost. A special problem is lack of a farsighted solid waste management strategy. Despite these severe stresses, the system somehow manages to deliver essential services to a large population.

 

Preventable Hospitalizations and Socioeconomic Status

Preventable Hospitalizations and Socioeconomic Status
Health Affairs. 1998;17:177-189.

Blustein, J., Hanson, K. & Shea, S.
01/01/1998

"Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance.

Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana

Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana
Journal of Populations Economics 11 (4), December 1998, 471 - 493.

Morduch, J. Garg, A.
01/01/1998

When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana, we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters). The effects are as large as typical quantity-quality trade-offs, and they do not differ significantly by gender.

Valuation of Physician and Ambulatory Care Practices

Valuation of Physician and Ambulatory Care Practices
Healthcare Financial Management, June .

Schwartzben, Dov & Finkler, S.A.
01/01/1998

Explains several accounting approaches for healthcare organizations planning to acquire physician and ambulatory care practices. Acquisition arrangements; Historical cost; Constant dollar value; Replacement/economic cost; Opportunity-cost approach; Income approach; Enhancement opportunities.

Visits to Specialists Under Medicare: Socioeconomic Advantage and Access to Care

Visits to Specialists Under Medicare: Socioeconomic Advantage and Access to Care
J Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 1998;9:153-169.

Blustein, J. & Weiss, L.J.
01/01/1998

This study examines the relationship between socioeconomic advantage and the likelihood of receiving specialty care in a nationally representative sample of older Americans participating in fee-for-service Medicare. In 1992, 62.9 percent of Americans aged 65 and older visited a specialist physician at least once. Being white, having more education, and having a higher income were each independently associated with a higher likelihood of visiting a specialist. Having insurance to supplement basic Medicare coverage was also independently associated with an increased likelihood of visiting a specialist; disadvantaged elders are less likely to have such supplemental insurance. Therefore, based both upon socioeconomic disadvantage and a lack of insurance to supplement the basic Medicare benefit, black, less educated and low-income elders are less likely to receive specialty services under fee-for-service Medicare. As the program evolves, it will be important to continue to monitor access to specialty care in vulnerable, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment

Where Youth Live: Effects of Urban Space on Employment
Urban Studies, Jun98, Vol. 35 Issue 7, p1187-1205, 19p, 8 charts, 3 graphs, 1 map

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1998

This paper synthesises a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It broadens the focus beyond transport and the 'friction of space' and expands the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking 'access' to youth labour market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data relating access to employment outcomes for black youth at the metropolitan level. Access is broadly defined to include traditional measures of geographical distance, as well as measures of social isolation or social access. Metropolitan areas in which the black poor are more spatially isolated are also found to have higher black youth unemployment rates. The second body of evidence relies on the same type of metropolitan measures, combined with individual data on youth living with at least one parent. When individual and family characteristics are controlled for, and white and Hispanic youth are also considered, metropolitan measures of social access exert distinguishable effects upon youth employment-youth living in urban areas in which they have less residential contact with whites or the non-poor are less likely to be employed. The final piece of analysis links the individual records of such youth to tract-level measures of access, both social (neighbourhood composition variables) and geographical (job-access measures). This is accomplished through the creation of a unique data set at the Bureau of the Census. Again, after controlling for individual and family characteristics, the residential conditions of youth affect their employment. Ceteris paribus, youth living in census tracts with fewer employed adults, with fewer whites, and which are further from jobs are less likely to be employed. Results suggest that the overall effects of space on employment outcomes are substantial, explaining 10-40 per cent of the observed racial differences in employment in...

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