Finance

Strengthening the Highway Trust Fund: Short-Term Options

Strengthening the Highway Trust Fund: Short-Term Options
New York Transportation Journal, Spring/Summer 2003, Vol. 6, No. 3.

de Cerreño, A.L.C.
01/01/2003

In existence since 1956, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) is the source of all Federal highway funding and roughly four-fifths of all Federal transit funding. With budgetary firewalls in place since 1998 as a result of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, the Highway Trust Fund is integral to the long-term transportation planning of all 50 States. However, Congressional Budget Office forecasts show that at current baselines (i.e. spending at currently enacted levels with adjustments for inflation within the context of current tax policies), the HTF will be unable to keep up with national transportation needs.
How to meet these needs - which are projected to require an estimated average annual investment over the next 20 years of between $90.7 billion and $110.9 billion just to maintain the system and between $127.5 billion and $169.5 billion to improve it - is a source of considerable debate. Short-term options that should be seriously considered by both State and Federal governments are raising and indexing motor fuel taxes.

Teaching Future Healthcare Financial Managers to Use Evidence

Teaching Future Healthcare Financial Managers to Use Evidence
Journal of Health Administration Education, Vol. 20, No. 4, pages 243-261.

Finkler, S.A.
01/01/2003

There is a growing movement toward evidence-based management in healthcare. This movement extends to healthcare financial management. However, there are barriers to the use of evidence by healthcare financial managers. These barriers are largely the result of culture (management culture is substantially different from clinical culture) and education. If healthcare financial managers are to become better at generating and using evidence, educators must do a better job of preparing them to do so. If we provide more education regarding the goals of research and about the different types of research methods, then healthcare financial managers can become educated consumers of evidence. If we provide more examples of evidence that has been generated by research in our classes, and if we give the students experience in gathering evidence, we have a chance of increasing the use of evidence-based management in healthcare.

The Case for the Use of Evidence-Based Management Research for the Control of Hospital Costs

The Case for the Use of Evidence-Based Management Research for the Control of Hospital Costs
Health Care Management Review, Volume 28, Number 4, pages 348-365. (Also accepted for oral presentation at APHA's 131st Annual Meeting, November 15-19, in San Francisco, CA.)

Finkler, S.A. & Ward, D.M.
01/01/2003

This article explores the current state of the creation and use of evidence by managers for cost containment in hospitals. We assert that hospitals do not know enough about what things cost, and until they get evidence on costs, it is not likely that much can be done to narrow the chasm between common practice and best practice. Part of the problem is that managers do not seek out available evidence that exists, and part of the problem is a lack of sufficient research efforts to generate evidence for managers to use. The article strives to help direct future efforts by researchers and managers in the area of evidence-based cost containment research by presenting a framework for priorities that managers and researchers can use to increase the amount of research done to generate evidence and to increase the use of evidence by health care managers.

The Property Tax, Land Use and Land Use Regulation

The Property Tax, Land Use and Land Use Regulation
Edward Elgar Publishing,

Netzer, D., ed.
01/01/2003

This comprehensive volume of essays by respected scholars in economics and public finance explores the connections among the property tax, land use and regulation. The authors examine the idea that the property tax is used as a partial substitute for land use regulation and other policies designed to affect how land is utilized. Like many economists, the contributors see some type of property taxation as a more efficient means of helping to shape land use. Some of the essays analyze a conventional property tax, while others consider radically different systems of property taxation.

Following an introduction by the book's editor Dick Netzer, the first paper sets the stage by modeling taxes on land and buildings in the context of a dynamic model of real estate markets. The remaining papers examine how various tax mechanisms and non-tax alternatives to regulating and determining land use, such as zoning and private neighborhood associations, complement or substitute for one another. Urban planners and economists interested in local public finance will welcome this wide-ranging review and analysis.

Dick Netzer, a leading public finance economist specializing in state and local issues and urban government, is professor emeritus of economics and public administration at the Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University. He organized a conference sponsored by the Lincoln Institute in Scottsdale, Arizona, in January 2002 and edited the papers presented at that conference for this volume.

 

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination

The Context for Intelligent Transportation Systems in New York State: Opportunities, Constraints, and the Need for Greater Institutional Coordination
A Report to the Legislature by the NYU Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management, July,

Peyrebrune, H. & de Cerreño, A.L.C
07/01/2002

Prepared at the request of the New York State Assembly Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices, and funded by an appropriation made available from the New York Department of Transportation's budget, the purpose of this report is to provide a review of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) as they relate to New York State transportation programs and policy and to highlight policy concerns for further consideration by the state.

The Role of the Nonprofit Board in Double Bottom Line Investing

The Role of the Nonprofit Board in Double Bottom Line Investing
Journal for Nonprofit Management, Summer 2002, Vol. 6, #1, pp. 18-30.

Chellman, C., Denison, D.V. & Weinstein, M.G.
06/01/2002

Nonprofits can use their investment policy to further their mission and hold corporations socially responsible for their actions. Colin C. Chellman, Dwight V. Denison, and Meryle G. Weinstein draw from strategic management literature to discuss the key considerations for helping a nonprofit board to reach agreement on Socially Responsible Investing objectives and policies.

Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers

Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers
3rd Edition with interactive CD, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, May 2002, 400 pages. New York: Aspen Publishers.

Finkler, S.A.
05/01/2002

For all entrepreneurs and nonfinancial professionals with budget and/or P&L responsibilities, Finance and Accounting for Nonfinancial Managers provides the basics necessary to make a solid contribution to the financial goals and success of their companies. This indispensable and easy-to-read primer gives all entrepreneurs and managers in nonfinancial areas--sales, marketing, production, and more--a complete understanding of financial terms, statements, and ratios and how they affect the operations of a business or corporation. With this information, financial managers will be able to understand: owners' equity, ratio analysis; balance sheets; income statements; LIFO liquidations; asset valuation; cash flow statements; capital leasing; liabilities; present value; operating leverage; breakeven analysis; and more. New to the third edition are chapters covering: basic tax concepts; capital structure; business plans; working capital management and banking relationships; personal finances; and accountability and controls.

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations

Negotiating Accountability: Managerial Lessons from Identity-Based Nonprofit Organizations
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, March, Vol 31, No. 1, pp. 5-31.

Ospina, S., Diaz, W. & O'Sullivan, J.
03/01/2002

This article explores the emerging conceptualization of accountability in nonprofit organizations. This definition broadens traditional concerns with finances, internal controls, and regulatory compliance. The authors explore how the top-level managers of 4 identity-based nonprofit organizations (IBNPs) faced accountability and responsiveness challenges to accomplish their mission. The organization-community link was the core relationship in their accountability environment, helping the IBNP managers achieve what the literature calls "negotiated accountability." The managers favored organizational mechanisms to sustain this relationship in the midst of the accountability demands they experienced daily. Communication with the primary constituency tended to drive the organization's priorities and programs, helped managers find legitimate negotiation tools with other stakeholders, and helped develop a broader notion of accountability. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for other nonprofit organizations and propose questions to further clarify the concepts of broad accountability, negotiated accountability, and the link between accountability and responsiveness in nonprofits.

Classroom Based Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior: Reducing the Bias of Absenteeism

Classroom Based Surveys of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior: Reducing the Bias of Absenteeism
(publication link courtesy of) American Journal of Public Health 92:2 , pp. 235-237.

Guttmacher, S., Weitzman, B.C., Kapadia, F. & Weinberg, S.
01/01/2002

Objectives. This investigation examined the effectiveness of intensive efforts to include frequently absent students in order to reduce bias in classroom-based studies.
Methods. Grade 10 students in 13 New York City high schools (n = 2049) completed self-administered confidential surveys in 4 different phases: a 1-day classroom capture, a 1-day follow-up, and 2 separate 1-week follow-ups. Financial incentives were offered, along with opportunities for out-of-classroom participation.
Results. Findings showed that frequently absent students engaged in more risk behaviors than those who were rarely absent. Intensive efforts to locate and survey chronically absent students did not, however, significantly alter estimates of risk behavior. Weighting the data for individual absences marginally improved the estimates.
Conclusions. This study showed that intensive efforts to capture absent students in classroom-based investigations are not warranted by the small improvements produced in regard to risk behavior estimates.

Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governance? Evidence from New York City Contractors

Does Government Funding Alter Nonprofit Governance? Evidence from New York City Contractors
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21(3):359-379.

O'Regan, K. & Oster, S.M.
01/01/2002

This paper explores the relationship between nonprofit board governance practices and government contracting. Monitoring by a board is one way a governmental agency can help to insure quality performance by its contractors. Agencies could thus use both their selection process and their post-contracting power to influence board practice. Using a new, rich data set on the nonprofit contractors of New York City, we test a series of hypotheses on the effects of government funding on board practices. We find that significant differences exist in board practices as a function of government funding levels, differences that mark a shift of focus or energy away from some activities, towards others. Trustees of nonprofits which receive high government funding are significantly less likely to engage in the traditional board functions, such as fund raising, while more likely to engage in financial monitoring and advocacy.

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