Finance

Essentials of Cost Accounting for Health Care Organizations

Essentials of Cost Accounting for Health Care Organizations
2nd Edition, Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 469 pages. Currently published by Jones & Bartlett.

Finkler, S.A. & Ward, D.M.
01/01/1999

Essentials of Cost Accounting for Health Care Organizations, Second Edition is a comprehensive text that applies the tool and techniques of cost accounting to the health services field. It is an essential tools for all professionals who need to deal with the challenges of managing health facilities in a difficult economic environment.

Improving Infrastructure Finance Through Grant-Loan Linkages

Improving Infrastructure Finance Through Grant-Loan Linkages
International Journal of Public Administration, Volume 22, No. 23.

Smoke, P.
01/01/1999

In recent years, developing countries under fiscal pressure have increasing recognized significant weaknesses in their intergovernmental mechanisms for financing local infrastructure. Many countries are in the process of rationalizing poorly coordinated and subjectively allocated grant systems as well as loans. Such efforts, however, are typically undertaken independently of each other, often providing conflicting incentives for local fiscal behavior. I argue that the reform of grant and loan mechanisms should be explicitly linked to improve the overall effectiveness of the infrastructure finance system. The potential complications involved in designing grant-loan linkages, however, are considerable. I illustrate some key issues by examining the water sector in Indonesia, concluding with suggestions for how to think about creating such linkages in other sectors and countries.

The Role of Subsidies in Microfinance: Evidence from The Grameen Bank

The Role of Subsidies in Microfinance: Evidence from The Grameen Bank
Journal of Development Economics, 60, October 1999, 229-248.

Morduch, J.
01/01/1999

Focuses on the role of subsidies in microfinance as evidenced by the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. Difficulties in maintaining high repayment rates; Role of the bank in alleviating poverty; Recognition of the myriad benefits that have been attributed to program participation.

Using Adjusted Performance Measures for Evaluating Resource Use

Using Adjusted Performance Measures for Evaluating Resource Use
Public Budgeting and Finance, Volume 19, No. 3, Fall .

Stiefel, L., Schwartz, A.E. & Rubenstein, R.
01/01/1999

Public service organizations are looking for ways to improve the evaluation of performance and resource allocation. One of the approaches is to use adjusted performance measures, which attempt to Capture factors that affect the organizational performance but are outside of the organization's control. This article illustrates the construction and use of adjusted performance measures to assess the performance of public schools, and reports findings from a study of school-based budgeting in Chicago that relates adjusted performance measures and patterns of budget allocations.

Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor?: New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh

Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor?: New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh
Presented at Stanford, UC-Berkeley, University of Washington, RAND, University of Toronto, Princeton, and Yale. Research Program in Development Studies, Woodrow School of Public and International Affairs. June 1998.

Jonathan Morduch
06/27/1998

The microfinance movement has built on innovations in financial intermediation that reduce the costs and risks of lending to poor households. Replications of the movement’s flagship, the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, have now spread around the world. While programs aim to bring social and economic benefits to clients, few attempts have been made to quantify benefits rigorously. This paper draws on a new cross-sectional survey of nearly 1800 households, some of which are served by the Grameen Bank and two similar programs, and some of which have no access to programs. Households that are eligible to borrow and have access to the programs do not have notably higher consumption levels than control households, and, for the most part, their children are no more likely to be in school. Men also tend to work harder, and women less. More favorably, relative to controls, households eligible for programs have substantially (and significantly) lower variation in consumption and labor supply across seasons. The most important potential impacts are thus associated with the reduction of vulnerability, not of poverty per se. The consumption-smoothing appears to be driven largely by income-smoothing, not by borrowing and lending.

The evaluation holds lessons for studies of other programs in low-income countries. While it is common to use fixed effects estimators to control for unobservable variables correlated with the placement of programs, using fixed effects estimators can exacerbate biases when, as here, programs target their programs to specific populations within larger communities.

Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia

Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity Issue 2, p1-114, 114p.

Furman, J. & Stiglitz, J.E.
01/01/1998

Presents information on the financial crisis in East Asia. Causes of the crisis; Contrasting perspectives on East Asia's miracle and crisis; Economic impact of the financial and capital account liberalization of the 1980s to East Asia.

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