Labor

Public Infrastructure, Private Input Demand and Economic Performance in New England Manufacturing

Public Infrastructure, Private Input Demand and Economic Performance in New England Manufacturing
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan, pp 91-102.

Schwartz, A.E. & Morrison, C.
01/01/1996

Much of the current debate on the economic performance impacts of public infrastructure investment relates to the input-specific effects of such investment. In this article we explore these impacts by evaluating substitution patterns affecting private input use in New England manufacturing. Using a cost-based methodology, we find that, in the short run, public capital expenditures provide cost-saving benefits that exceed the associated investment costs due to substitutability between public capital and private inputs. Over time, however, stimulating investment in private capital increases economic performance more effectively than public capital expenditures alone and in fact reduces the cost incentive for such expenditures. In addition, growth in output motivated by infrastructure investment increases employment opportunities because this growth overrides short-run substitutability.

Spatial effects upon employment of outcomes: The case of New Jersey teenagers

Spatial effects upon employment of outcomes: The case of New Jersey teenagers
New England Economic Review, May/Jun 1996, p41, 18p, 16 charts

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1996

Provides tests of the relative importance of spatial factors on employment outcomes of teenagers in the United States. Relations between youth employment probabilities to individuals and family characteristics; Sources of statistical problems in the interpretation of findings about youth employment; Concerns on the youth's choice of neighborhood.

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households

Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households
Journal of Human Resources, Summer 1996, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p692-702, 11p, 3 charts

O'Regan, K. & Quigley, J.M.
01/01/1996

This paper tests the importance of the spatial isolation of minority and poverty households for youth employment in large metropolitan areas. We estimate a model relating youth employment probabilities to individual and family characteristics, race, and metropolitan location. We then investigate the determinants of the systematic differences in employment probabilities by race and metropolitan area. A substantial fraction of differences in youth employment can be attributed to the isolation of minorities and poor households. Minority youth residing in more segregated cities or cities in which minorities have less contact with nonpoor households have lower employment probabilities than otherwise comparable youth. Simulations suggest that these spatial effects explain a substantial fraction of the existing differences in youth employment rates by race.

"Not Like Us": Removing the Barriers to Recruiting Minority Faculty

"Not Like Us": Removing the Barriers to Recruiting Minority Faculty
Journal of Policy Analysis & Management; Winter94, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p164-179, 16p.

Light, P.C. & Brock, J.
01/01/1994

Offers suggestions on how to remove the barriers to recruiting minority faculty. Obstacles to recruitment; Position description; Search for the position; Making a short list; Evaluation of criteria to be used in reviewing specific files; Interviews; Extra time for reflection and debate.

The effect of social networks and concentrated poverty on black and hispanic youth unemployment

The effect of social networks and concentrated poverty on black and hispanic youth unemployment
Annals of Regional Science, Dec 1993, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p327, 16p

O'Regan, K.
01/01/1993

This paper examines empirically the effect of spatially concentrated poverty on minority youth employment and the role of "access" in youth labor markets. A model, in which information about jobs travels through social networks, links labor market outcomes and residential concentration of poverty. The empirical work uses U.S. Census employment data for the largest MSAs, in 1970 and 1980. The key findings are that, although concentration appears to have had no effect on black youth unemployment in 1970, the results for 1980 support "concentration effects" on unemployment for both black and hispanic youth. These effects are sizeable on average, and quite large in some cities.

Politics Is the Issue: A Response to Robert Myers

Politics Is the Issue: A Response to Robert Myers
Public Administration Review; May/Jun86, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p261-266, 6p.

Light, P.C.
05/01/1986

Presents a response to a critique of a report on actuarial estimates for social security in the U.S., featured in the 1985 issue of the periodical "Public Administration Review." Potential impact of political pressure on the social security estimates; Controversy surrounding the use of confidentiality as a condition of research; Cause of the declining accuracy of the late 1970's and early 1980's estimates.

Social Security and the Politics of Assumptions

Social Security and the Politics of Assumptions
Public Administration Review, May/Jun85, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p363, 9p.

Light, P.C.
01/01/1985

This article addresses the importance of economic and demographic assumptions in framing the public policy process. It examines functions of such assumptions as an important aspect of government and as a new challenge for public managers. Using Social Security as a case study, the article suggests that recent fore- casts have been inaccurate for four basic reasons: (I) the social and economic environment, (2) technique, (3) assumption drag, and (4) politics. Nevertheless, the assumptions have been crucial at several key legislative turning points in recent Social Security reforms. The article reviews the impact of political pressure in three specific instances and suggests an emerging pattern in the use and misuse of assumptions. The article concludes with suggestions on how to address the importance of assumptions in the public policy process.

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