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Multi-Dimensional Profiles of Welfare and Work Dynamics: Development, Validation, and Relationship to Child Cognitive and Mental Health Outcomes

Multi-Dimensional Profiles of Welfare and Work Dynamics: Development, Validation, and Relationship to Child Cognitive and Mental Health Outcomes
American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, pp. 907-936.

Yoshikawa, H. & Seidman, E.
01/01/2001

This prospective longitudinal study addresses the research gap in the literature regarding multidimensional variation in welfare use and employment patterns, and relationships of such variation with parent earnings and child development outcomes. This study also aims to address the limitations of welfare dynamics studies that do not examine how multiple dimensions of welfare receipt and employment co-occur Cluster analysis was utilized, using monthly welfare and employment data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine variation within the welfare population in their welfare and work patterns across the first 5 years of children's lives. Six cluster profiles of welfare and work dynamics were found: Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Nonworking Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term. The clusters were validated using mother's 6th-year earnings as the criterion. The clusters' associations with child development outcomes in the cognitive and mental health domains (at ages 6 and 7) were then explored. Work following short-term welfare use was associated with higher child reading scores than that following long-term use (a moderate-size effect). Cycling on and off welfare in the context of high levels of employment was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms than cycling accompanied by low levels of employment (a moderate-size effect). Implications for evaluation of TANF welfare-to-work policies are discussed.

The Effects of Job Loss on Older Workers

The Effects of Job Loss on Older Workers
Peter P. Budetti, Richard V. Burkhauser, Janice M. Gregory and H. Allan Hunt (editors), Ensuring Health and Income Security for an Aging Workforce, Kalamazoo: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research,

Chan, S. & Stevens, A.H.
01/01/2001

This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the employment patterns of workers aged 50 and above who have experienced an involuntary job loss. Hazard Models for returning to work and for exiting post displacement employment are estimated and used to examine work patterns for 10 years following a job loss. Our findings show that a job loss results in large and lasting effects on future employment probabilities. Four years after job losses at age 55, the employment rate of displaced workers remains 20 percentage points below the employment rate of similar nondisplaced workers.

Collaborative Off-line Reflection: A Way to Develop Skill in Action Science and Action Inquiry

Collaborative Off-line Reflection: A Way to Develop Skill in Action Science and Action Inquiry
Handbook of Action Research. Edited by Reason, P. and H. Bradbury. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications,

Rudolph, J. & Taylor, S., Foldy, E.G.
01/01/2000

Handbook of Action Research draws together the different strands of action research, reveals their diverse applications and demonstrates their interrelations. The text articulates an emergent, participatory worldview that will challenge the modernist paradigm and value system.

This far-reaching volume, in illustrating the latest approaches in social inquiry, moves the field forward with innovative insights and participatory practices. It grapples with questions of how to integrate knowledge with action, how to collaborate with co-researchers in the field, and how to present the necessarily "messy" components of such participative research in a coherent fashion. The organization of the volume reflects the many different issues and levels of analysis represented.

 

The Microfinance Promise

The Microfinance Promise
Journal of Economic Literature, Dec 1999, Vol. 37 Issue 4, p1569, 46p.

Morduch, J.
12/01/1999

The article presents information about a set of financial institutions in underdeveloped countries which are striving to alleviate poverty by providing financial services to low-income households. These institutions, united under the banner of microfinance, share a commitment to serving clients that have been exclude from the formal banking sector. Almost all of the borrowers do so to finance self-employment activities, and many start by taking loans as small as $75, repaid over several months or a year. Only a few programs require borrowers to put up collateral, enabling would-be entrepreneurs with few assets to escape positions as poorly paid wage laborers or farmers. The programs point to innovations like "group-lending" contracts and new attitudes about subsidies as keys to their success. Group-lending contracts effectively make a borrower's neighbors co-signers to loans, mitigating problems created by informational asymmetries between lender and borrower. Neighbours now have incentives to monitor each other and to exclude risky borrowers from participation, promoting repayment even in the absence of collateral requirements.

Blacks & Puerto Ricans in New York City: The Reconfiguration of Race & Racism

Blacks & Puerto Ricans in New York City: The Reconfiguration of Race & Racism
in Latinos and Blacks in U.S. Cities, John Betancur and Douglas Gill (eds.) (Garland Press, NY 1999).

Stafford, W.W.& Bonilla, F.
10/01/1999

This edited collection examines joint efforts by Latinos and African Americans to confront problems faced by populations of both groups in urban settings (in particular, socioeconomic disadvantage and concentration in inner cities). The essays address two major issues: experiences and bases for collaboration and contention between the two groups; and the impact of urban policies and initiatives of recent decades on Blacks and Latinos in central cities.

Action Learning, Fragmentation and the Interaction of Single, Double, and Triple Loop Change: A Case of Gay and Lesbian Workplace Advocacy

Action Learning, Fragmentation and the Interaction of Single, Double, and Triple Loop Change: A Case of Gay and Lesbian Workplace Advocacy
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35 (2).

Foldy, E.G. & Creed, W.E.D.
01/01/1999

Proposes an elaborated action-learning framework that decomposes action-learning method into the three components of argument, practice, and outcome. Illumination of multiple facets of change; Analysis of the interaction of the three methods in significant change processes; Application of the framework to a case of gay and lesbian workplace advocacy; How the different action-learning methods work together to create change in an organization.

Between the Market and State: Can Informal Insurance Patch the Safety Net?

Between the Market and State: Can Informal Insurance Patch the Safety Net?
World Bank Research Observer, 14 (2), August 1999, 187 - 207.

Morduch, J.
01/01/1999

Examines use of informal insurance arrangements in households of low-income countries. Relationship between household consumption and income; Ways in dealing economic hardships; Systems of reciprocal transfers; Role of public policy in reducing economic vulnerability; Overview on microcredit, insurance and employment guarantee schemes.

Employment and Retirement Following a Late Career Job Loss

Employment and Retirement Following a Late Career Job Loss
American Economic Review 89(2), May 1999, pages 211-216.

Chan, S. & Stevens, A.H.
01/01/1999

The frequency of job loss among workers in late career has risen disproportionately in recent years. During the early 1980s, displacement rates for 55-64 year olds were the lowest of any age cohort but by the recession of the early 1990s, they had the highest rates (see Farber [1997]). The effects of job loss on these workers are potentially severe: their earnings capacity, savings, and retirement expectations are likely to be dramatically affected and they may take substantially longer to be re-employed. However, despite these reasons for heightened concern, relatively little is known about the economic consequences of late career job loss among recent cohorts of workers. Empirical estimation of dynamic retirement models and analyses of retirement behavior in general have usually ignored involuntary job losses, and many recent studies of post-displacement outcomes have been limited to younger and mid- career workers. Given the changes in labor force participation, retirement rates and the nature of displacement over the past decade, it is important to document the effects of job loss on more recent cohorts of older workers. This paper presents findings from an ongoing research project that focuses on the economic impacts of late career job loss on employment and retirement patterns, as well as on earnings and assets.

The Way We Were?

The Way We Were?
Brookings Review; Spring98, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p47, 4p.

Light, P.C.
04/01/1998

Discusses the possible reform of Social Security in the United States (US). Social Security myths and realities; Implication of social welfare problems; Options of the US Congress in reform.

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