Technology & Policy

What’s the Worst That Can Happen? Social Media Protocols and Policies

What’s the Worst That Can Happen? Social Media Protocols and Policies
In Best Practices for Transportation Agency Use of Social Media, CRC Press, October 2, 2013.

Sarah M. Kaufman and Susan Bregman
10/02/2013

Timely updates, increased citizen engagement, and more effective marketing are just a few of the reasons transportation agencies have already started to adopt social media networking tools. Best Practices for Transportation Agency Use of Social Media offers real-world advice for planning and implementing social media from leading government practitioners, academic researchers, and industry experts.

The book provides an overview of the various social media platforms and tools, with examples of how transportation organizations use each platform. It contains a series of interviews that illustrate what creative agencies are doing to improve service, provide real-time updates, garner valuable information from their customers, and better serve their communities. It reveals powerful lessons learned from various transportation agencies, including a regional airport, city and state departments of transportation, and municipal transit agencies. 

Filled with examples from transportation organizations, the text provides ideas that can apply to all modes of transportation including mass transit, highways, aviation, ferries, bicycling, and walking. It describes how to measure the impact of your social media presence and also examines advanced uses of social media for obtaining information by involving customers and analyzing their social media use. 

The book outlines all the resources you will need to maintain a social media presence and describes how to use social media analytical tools to assess service strengths and weaknesses and customer sentiment. Explaining how to overcome the digital divide, language barriers, and accessibility challenges for patrons with disabilities, it provides you with the understanding of the various social media technologies along with the knowhow to determine which one is best for a specific situation and purpose.

 
 

Social Media in Disaster Preparation, Response, and Recovery

Social Media in Disaster Preparation, Response, and Recovery
TR News July-August 2013: Logistics of Disaster Response

Sarah M. Kaufman
09/27/2013

Social media have become an essential source of information before, during, and after disasters. Social networks like Twitter, Facebook, and Tumblr—instantaneous, far-reaching, and interactive— have become the convergence point for a range of information sources, dialogues, and dynamic content. A survey conducted by the New York University (NYU) Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management found that during Superstorm Sandy, social media were the second-highest-rated source of information, ranking higher than other popular sources such as television and radio news, news websites, and community groups.

Monitoring the pulse of hospital activity: Electronic health record utilization as a measure of care intensity

Monitoring the pulse of hospital activity: Electronic health record utilization as a measure of care intensity
Journal of Hospital Medicine, Vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 513-518. DOI: 10.1002/jhm.2068

Blecker, S., J.S. Austrian, D. Shine, R. Scott Braithwaite, M.J. Radford, and M.N. Gourevitch
09/01/2013

Background: Hospital care on weekends has been associated with reduced quality and poor clinical outcomes, suggesting that decreases in overall intensity of care may have important clinical effects. We describe a new measure of hospital intensity of care based on utilization of the electronic health record (EHR).

Methods: We measured global intensity of care at our academic medical center by monitoring the use of the EHR in 2011. Our primary measure, termed EHR interactions, was the number of accessions of a patient's electronic record by a clinician, adjusted for hospital census, per unit of time. Our secondary measure was percent of total available central processing unit (CPU) power used to access EHR servers at a given time.

Results: EHR interactions were lower on weekend days as compared to weekdays at every hour (P < 0.0001), and the daytime peak in intensity noted each weekday was blunted on weekends. The relative rate and 95% confidence interval (CI) of census-adjusted record accessions per patient on weekdays compared with weekends were: 1.76 (95% CI: 1.74-1.77), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.50-1.55), and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17) for day, morning/evening, and night hours, respectively. Percent CPU usage correlated closely with EHR interactions (r = 0.90).

Conclusions: EHR usage is a valid and easily reproducible measure of intensity of care in the hospital. Using this measure we identified large, hour-specific differences between weekend and weekday intensity. EHR interactions may serve as a useful measure for tracking and improving temporal variations in care that are common, and potentially deleterious, in hospital systems.

Reimagining Governance in Practice: Benchmarking British Columbia’s Citizen Engagement Efforts

Reimagining Governance in Practice: Benchmarking British Columbia’s Citizen Engagement Efforts
The GovLab, May 2013

Andrew Young, Christina Rogawski, Sabeel Rahman, and Stefaan Verhulst
05/01/2013

Over the last few years, the Government of British Columbia (BC), Canada has initiated a variety of practices and policies aimed at providing more legitimate and effective governance. Leveraging advances in technology, the BC Government has focused on changing how it engages with its citizens with the goal of optimizing the way it seeks input and develops and implements policy. The efforts are part of a broader trend among a wide variety of democratic governments to re-imagine public service and governance.

At the beginning of 2013, BC’s Ministry of Citizens’ Services and Open Government, now the Ministry of Technology, Innovation and Citizens’ Services, partnered with the GovLab to produce “Reimagining Governance in Practice: Benchmarking British Columbia’s Citizen Engagement Efforts.”  The GovLab’s May 2013 report, made public today, makes clear that BC’s current practices to create a more open government, leverage citizen engagement to inform policy decisions, create new innovations, and provide improved public monitoring­—though in many cases relatively new—are consistently among the strongest examples at either the provincial or national level.

According to Stefaan Verhulst, Chief of Research at the GovLab : “Our benchmarking study found that British Columbia’s various initiatives and experiments to create a more open and participatory governance culture has made it a leader in how to re-imagine governance. Leadership, along with the elimination of imperatives that may limit further experimentation, will be critical moving forward. And perhaps even more important, as with all initiatives to re-imaging governance worldwide, much more evaluation of what works, and why, will be needed to keep strengthening the value proposition behind the new practices and polices and provide proof-of-concept.”

Surgical Decompression is Associated with Decreased Mortality in Patients with Sepsis and Ureteral Calculi

Surgical Decompression is Associated with Decreased Mortality in Patients with Sepsis and Ureteral Calculi
Journal of Urology, Vol. 189, no. 3, pp. 946-951. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.088

Borofsky, M.S., D. Walter,O. Shah, D.S. Goldfarb, A.C. Mues, and D.V. Makarov
03/01/2013

Purpose: The combination of sepsis and ureteral calculus is a urological emergency. Traditional teaching advocates urgent decompression with nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent placement, although published outcomes validating this treatment are lacking. National practice patterns for such scenarios are currently undefined. Using a retrospective study design, we defined the surgical decompression rate in patients admitted to the hospital with severe infection and ureteral calculi. We determined whether a mortality benefit is associated with this intervention.

Materials and Methods: Patient demographics and hospital characteristics were extracted from the 2007 to 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified 1,712 patients with ureteral calculi and sepsis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the association between mortality and surgical decompression.

Results: Of the patients 78% underwent surgical decompression. Mortality was higher in those not treated with surgical decompression (19.2% vs 8.82%, p <0.001). Lack of surgical decompression was independently associated with an increased OR of mortality even when adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and geographic region of treatment (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.7).

Conclusions: Absent surgical decompression is associated with higher odds of mortality in patients with sepsis and ureteral calculi. Further research to determine predictors of surgical decompression is necessary to ensure that all patients have access to this life saving therapy.

Centralization of Radical Prostatectomy in the United States

Centralization of Radical Prostatectomy in the United States
Journal of Urology, Vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 500-506. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.10.012

Anderson, C.B., D.F. Penson, S. Ni, D.V. Makarov, and D.A. Barocas
02/01/2013

Purpose: Radical prostatectomy is a common treatment for organ confined prostate cancer and its use is increasing. We examined how the increased volume is being distributed and what hospital characteristics are associated with increasing volume.

Materials and Methods: We identified all men age 40 to less than 80 years who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer from 2000 to 2008 in the NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) (586,429). Ownership of a surgical robot was determined using the 2007 AHA (American Hospital Association) Annual Survey. The association between hospital radical prostatectomy volume and hospital characteristics, including ownership of a robot, was explored using multivariate linear regression.

Results: From 2000 to 2008 there was a 74% increase in the number of radical prostatectomies performed (p = 0.05) along with a 19% decrease in the number of hospitals performing radical prostatectomy (p <0.001), resulting in an increase in annual hospital radical prostatectomy volume (p = 0.009). Several hospital variables were associated with greater radical prostatectomy volume including teaching status, urban location, large bed size and ownership of a robot in 2007. On multivariate analysis the year, teaching status, large bed size, urban location and presence of a robot were associated with higher hospital radical prostatectomy volume.

Conclusions: Use of radical prostatectomy increased significantly between 2000 and 2008, most notably after 2005. The increase in radical prostatectomy resulted in centralization to select hospitals, particularly those in the top radical prostatectomy volume quartile and those investing in robotic technology. Our findings support the hypothesis that hospitals with the greatest volume increases are specialty centers already performing a high volume of radical prostatectomy procedures.

Information for Impact: Liberating Nonprofit Sector Data

Information for Impact: Liberating Nonprofit Sector Data
Aspen Institute (January 2013)

Noveck, Beth Simone and Daniel Goroff
01/01/2013

This report addresses the challenges to obtaining better, more usable data about the nonprofit sector to match the sector’s growing importance. In 2010, there were 1.5 million tax-exempt organizations in the United States with $1.51 trillion in revenues. Through the Form 990 in its several varieties, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) gathers and publishes a large amount of information about tax-exempt organizations. Over time, versions of the Form 990 have evolved that collect information on governance, investments, and other factors not directly related to an organization’s tax calculations or qualifications for tax exemption. Copies of these returns are available one at a time from the filers or from other sources. The IRS creates image files of Form 990 returns and sells compilationsof them to the subscribing public for a fee. Several institutions, particularly GuideStar, the Foundation Center, and the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS) at the Urban Institute, use this IRS data to analyze and present information about individual nonprofits and about the sector as a whole.

Like other important data collected by governments, information contained in the 990s could potentially be far more useful if it were not only public but “open” data. Open data are data that are available to all, free of charge, in a standard format, published without proprietary conditions, and available online as a bulk download rather than only through single-entry lookup. Making the Form 990 data truly open in this sense would not only make it easier to use for the organizations that already process it, but would also make it useful to researchers, advocates, entrepreneurs, technologists, and nonprofits that do not have the resources to use the data in its current form. We argue that open 990 data may increase transparency for nonprofit organizations, making it easier for state and federal authorities to detect fraud, spur innovation in the nonprofit sector and, above all, help us to understand the potential value of the 990 data.

How Social Media Moves New York, Part 2: Recommended Social Media Policy for Transportation Providers

How Social Media Moves New York, Part 2: Recommended Social Media Policy for Transportation Providers
NYU Rudin Center for Transportation, December 2012

Kaufman, Sarah.
12/01/2012

Social media networks allow transportation providers to reach large numbers of people simultaneously and without a fee, essential factors for the millions of commuters and leisure travelers moving through the New York region every day. This report, based on earlier findings (from Part 1), which analyzed local transportation providers’ use of social media, and a seminar on the subject in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, recommends social media policies for transportation providers seeking to inform, engage and motivate their customers.

The goals of social media in transportation are to inform (alert riders of a situation), motivate (to opt for an alternate route), and engage (amplify the message to their friends and neighbors). To accomplish these goals, transportation providers should be:

- Accessible: Easily discovered through multiple channels and targeted information campaigns

- Informative: Disseminating service information at rush hour and with longer-form discussions on blogs as needed

- Engaging: Responding directly to customers, marketing new services, and building community

- Responsive: Soliciting and internalizing feedback and self-evaluating in a continuous cycle

How Social Media Moves New York: Twitter Use by Transportation Providers in the New York Region

How Social Media Moves New York: Twitter Use by Transportation Providers in the New York Region
October 2012

Kaufman, Sarah M.
10/23/2012

Social media networks are valuable tools for the public outreach needs of transportation providers: they are free, instantaneous, reach large numbers of people simultaneously, and allow for sideline discussions. When transportation providers are trying to notify large numbers of passengers about delays, drivers about construction work, or bus riders about re-routes, they can “blast” messages through social media channels to reach their intended audience immediately (the audience accesses these networks far more frequently than the websites of their local transportation agencies). The goals of social media in transportation are to inform (alert riders of a situation), motivate (to opt for an alternate route), and engage (amplify the message to their friends and neighbors). Ideally, these actions would occur within minutes of an incident.

This report analyzes the use of social media tools by the New York region’s major transportation providers. It is focused on the effectiveness of their Twitter feeds, which were chosen for their immediacy and simplicity in messaging, and provided a common denominator for comparison between the various transportation providers considered, both public and private. Based on this analysis, recommendations are outlined for improving social media outreach. A subsequent report will propose policies and recommendations for enhanced information and engagement with users.

Augmented Reality and Urban Exploration

Augmented Reality and Urban Exploration
July 2012

Kaufman, Sarah M.
07/01/2012

Augmented Reality is beginning to shift the landscape of urban exploration, making the experience ever-more informative, from language translation applications to cultural enrichment tools. It will lead people to be more informed, advertised to, and assisted on every urban excursion, removing the traditional happenstance from urban exploration. It is unclear whether Augmented Reality (AR) will truly enhance experiences, lead to over-saturation of information and advertising, or a combination of the two. This paper will discuss the current and near-future uses of AR for city dwellers and the projected implications of ubiquitous information.

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