Race, Class, Gender & Diversity
The Color Bind: Talking (and not Talking) about Race at Work
Russell Sage Press
Foldy, Erica Gabrielle and Buckley, Tamara R.
Color blindness and color cognizance are the two dominant models for thinking about diversity and inclusion. While color blindness has been the dominant model in the US since the 1960s, scholars from many fields have argued that it contributes to searing inequities. They argue instead for color cognizance, which combines an awareness of the profound impact of race and ethnicity on individuals, communities and societies with an acknowledgement and condemnation of racism and discrimination. However, little research examines what enables color cognizance to flourish -- or even gain a foothold -- in the workplace. How do groups of people actually engage in color conscious behavior that views racial and ethnic differences as a point of strength and addresses these differences in real time? In fact, on an interpersonal level, color cognizance is hard: it requires breaking with established ways of thinking, it challenges those who benefit from the status quo, and it means talking about things, like race and culture, that are hard to talk about.
Our book draws on a qualitative, longitudinal study of child welfare teams to suggest how workgroups can transcend the color bind. Ultimately, we suggest a multi-level explanation that spans the individual, team and office levels. First, a workgroup needs at least some individual members who are color cognizant – who believe that race and ethnicity have weight and consequence – as opposed to color blind. Second, those individuals need to exist in a larger context, an "intergroup incubator" – including their team and office – in which they feel relatively safe and in which they have the capacity to learn together about their work more broadly and how to do it better. The Color Bind elaborates this argument with extensive empirical data while also suggesting implications for workgroups in social service, clinical, educational, governmental and corporate arenas.
Disparities in Service Quality Among Insured Adult Patients Seen in Physicians’ Offices
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2010. Volume 25 / Issue 04 / April 2010, pp 357-362, Published online
Dan Ly, Sherry Glied
To examine racial disparities in health care service quality.
Secondary data analyses of visits by primary care service users in the Community Tracking Study household sample.
Sixty communities across the United States.
A total of 41,537 insured adult patients making sick visits to primary care physicians in 1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001, and 2003.
Lag between appointment and physician visit, waiting time in physician office, and satisfaction with care were analyzed.
Blacks but not other minorities were more likely to have an appointment lag of more than 1 week (13% white vs. 21% black, p < 0.001). Blacks, Hispanics, and other minorities were more likely to wait more than 30 min before being seen by the physician (16% white vs. 26% black, p < 0.001; vs. 27% Hispanic and 22% other minority, p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) and were less likely to report that they were very satisfied with their care (65% white vs. 60% black, p = 0.02; vs. 57% Hispanic and 48% other minority, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). The differences in appointment lag and wait time remain large and statistically significant after the inclusion of multiple covariates, including geographic controls for CTS site. For all groups, satisfaction with care was affected by objective measures of service quality. Differences in objective measures of service quality explained much of the black-white difference in satisfaction, though not differences for other minority groups.
There are substantial racial/ethnic disparities in satisfaction with care, and these are related to objective quality measures that can be improved.
Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities: The Action Plan from the Department of Health and Human Services
Health Affairs, 2011. Volume 30 / Issue 10 / October 2011, pp 1822-1829, Published online
Howard K. Koh, Garth Graham and Sherry Glied
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recently unveiled the most comprehensive federal commitment yet to reducing racial and ethnic health disparities. The 2011 HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities not only responds to advice previously offered by stakeholders around the nation, but it also capitalizes on new and unprecedented opportunities in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 to benefit diverse communities. The Action Plan advances five major goals: transforming health care; strengthening the infrastructure and workforce of the nation’s health and human services; advancing Americans’ health and well-being; promoting scientific knowledge and innovation; and upholding the accountability of HHS for making demonstrable progress. By mobilizing HHS around these goals, the Action Plan moves the country closer to realizing the vision of a nation free of disparities in health and health care.
Building blocks of bias: Gender composition predicts male and female group members’ evaluations of each other and the group
2012. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1209-1212
West, TV, ME Heilman, K Gullett, CA Moss-Racusin, & JC Magee.
The present research examined how a group's gender composition influences intragroup evaluations. Group members evaluated fellow group members and the group as a whole following a shared task. As predicted, no performance differences were found as a function of gender composition, but judgments of individuals’ task contributions, the group's effectiveness, and desire to work with one's group again measured at a 10-week follow-up were increasingly negative as the proportion of women in the group increased. Negative judgments were consistently directed at male and female group members as indicated by no gender of target effects, demonstrating that men, simply by working alongside women, can be detrimentally affected by negative stereotypes about women. Implications for gender diversity in the workplace are discussed.
Why We Must Break the Male Cartel in the Work Place
In the Financial Times on April 23, 2008.
The European Union should follow the example set by Norway and Spain and introduce European legislation for gender balance on company boards, at universities and in government. It is the best way to end the culture of gender bias and stereotyping that is still prevalent in many companies and institutions. Isn’t it time we reaped all the fruits that women have to offer?
Public Opinion and Constitutional Controversy
Oxford University Press.
Persily, Nathaniel, Jack Citrin and Patrick J. Egan, eds.
American politics is most notably characterized by the heated debates on constitutional interpretation at the core of its ever-raging culture wars, and the coverage of these lingering disputes is often inundated with public-opinion polls. Yet for all their prominence in contemporary society, there has never been an all-inclusive, systematic study of public opinion and how it impacts the courts and electoral politics. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of American public opinion on the key constitutional controversies of the 20th century, including desegregation, school prayer, abortion, the death penalty, affirmative action, gay rights, assisted suicide, and national security, to name just a few. With chapters focusing on each issue in-depth, the book utilizes public-opinion data to illustrate these contemporary debates, methodically examining each one and how public attitudes have shifted over time, especially in the wake of prominent Supreme Court decisions. The chapters join the “popular constitutionalism” debate between those who advocate a dominant role for courts in constitutional adjudication and those who prefer a more pluralized constitutional discourse. Each chapter also details the gap between the public and the Supreme Court on these hotly contested issues and analyzes how and why this divergence of opinion has grown or shrunk over the last fifty years.
A School-Randomized Clinical Trial of an Integrated Social-Emotional Learning and Literacy Intervention: Impacts on Third-Grade Outcomes
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6): 829-842
Jones, S.M., Brown, J.L, Hoglund, W.L.G., & J.L. Aber.
Objective: To report experimental impacts of a universal, integrated school-based intervention in social–emotional learning and literacy development on change over 1 school year in 3rd-grade children's social–emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Method: This study employed a school-randomized, experimental design and included 942 3rd-grade children (49% boys; 45.6% Hispanic/Latino, 41.1% Black/African American, 4.7% non-Hispanic White, and 8.6% other racial/ethnic groups, including Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American) in 18 New York City public elementary schools. Data on children's social–cognitive processes (e.g., hostile attribution biases), behavioral symptomatology (e.g., conduct problems), and literacy skills and academic achievement (e.g., reading achievement) were collected in the fall and spring of 1 school year. Results: There were main effects of the 4Rs Program after 1 year on only 2 of the 13 outcomes examined. These include children's self-reports of hostile attributional biases (Cohen's d = 0.20) and depression ( d = 0.24). As expected based on program and developmental theory, there were impacts of the intervention for those children identified by teachers at baseline with the highest levels of aggression ( d = 0.32–0.59) on 4 other outcomes: children's self-reports of aggressive fantasies, teacher reports of academic skills, reading achievement scaled scores, and children's attendance. Conclusions: This report of effects of the 4Rs intervention on individual children across domains of functioning after 1 school year represents an important first step in establishing a better understanding of what is achievable by a schoolwide intervention such as the 4Rs in its earliest stages of unfolding. The first-year impacts, combined with our knowledge of sustained and expanded effects after a second year, provide evidence that this intervention may be initiating positive developmental cascades both in the general population of students and among those at highest behavioral risk.
Active living and social justice: Planning for physical activity in low income and black and Latino communities
Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1): 88-99
Abstract The U.S. faces rising rates of overweight and obesity. Active living-urban planning and design to promote physical activity?has emerged as a strategy to combat growing obesity. The active living movement initially targeted mostly middle-class, suburban communities. In this article, I argue that planning for active living must especially address low-income, Black, and Latino communities, where obesity and related health risks are greatest and resources least available. First I review the problem of obesity and related health conditions among low-income, Black, and Latino populations in the U.S., and identify the role of insufficient physical activity in this problem. I then examine physical environment and other factors that shape opportunities for physical activity in low-income communities and communities of color. Finally, I identify strategies that may help to promote active living in urban settings to better serve these communities. Abstract The U.S. faces rising rates of overweight and obesity. Active living-urban planning and design to promote physical activity?has emerged as a strategy to combat growing obesity. The active living movement initially targeted mostly middle-class, suburban communities. In this article, I argue that planning for active living must especially address low-income, Black, and Latino communities, where obesity and related health risks are greatest and resources least available. First I review the problem of obesity and related health conditions among low-income, Black, and Latino populations in the U.S., and identify the role of insufficient physical activity in this problem. I then examine physical environment and other factors that shape opportunities for physical activity in low-income communities and communities of color. Finally, I identify strategies that may help to promote active living in urban settings to better serve these communities.
An Alternative Approach to Addressing Selection into and out of Social Settings: Neighborhood Change and African American Children’s Economic Outcomes
Sociological Methods & Research
Temporary Integration, Resilient Inequality: Race and Neighborhood Change in the Transition to Adulthood
The Consequences of the ‘Missing Girls’ of China
World Bank Economic Review 23(3):399-425.
Ebenstein, Avraham and Ethan Jennings
In the wake of the one-child policy of 1979, China experienced an unprecedented rise in the sex ratio at birth (ratio of male to female births). In cohorts born between 1980 and 2000, there were 22 million more men than women. Some 10.4 percent of these additional men will fail to marry, based on simulations presented here that assess how different scenarios for the sex ratio at birth affect the probability of failure to marry in 21st century China. Three consequences of the high sex ratio and large numbers of unmarried men are discussed: the prevalence of prostitution and sexually transmitted infections, the economic and physical well-being of men who fail to marry, and China's ability to care for its elderly, with a particular focus on elderly males who fail to marry. Several policy options are suggested that could mitigate the negative consequences of the demographic squeeze.
Demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes of neonates diagnosed with fetomaternal haemorrhage.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 22375020
Stroustrup, Annemarie and Leonardo Trasande
Objective:To determine clinical characteristics, demographics and short-term outcomes of neonates diagnosed with fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH).
Design:The authors analysed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1993 to 2008. Singleton births diagnosed with FMH were identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) code 762.3. Descriptive, univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the national annual incidence of FMH over time as well as demographics and clinical characteristics of neonates with FMH.ResultsFMH was identified in 12 116 singleton births. Newborns with FMH required high intensity of care: 26.3% received mechanical ventilation, 22.4% received blood product transfusion and 27.8% underwent central line placement. Preterm birth (OR 3.7), placental abruption (OR 9.8) and umbilical cord anomaly (OR 11.4) were risk factors for FMH. Higher patient income was associated with increased likelihood of FMH diagnosis (OR 1.2), and Whites were more likely to be diagnosed than ethnic minorities (OR 1.9). There was reduced frequency of diagnosis in the Southern USA (OR 0.8 vs the Northeastern USA).
Conclusions: Diagnosis of FMH is associated with significant morbidity as well as regional, socioeconomic and racial disparity. Further study is needed to distinguish between diagnostic coding bias and true epidemiology of the disease. This is the first report of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in FMH, which may represent disparities in detection that require national attention.
The 2013 Federal Budget's Impact on Communities of Color and Low-Income Families
Women of Color Policy Network
The Obama administration's budget proposal for fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) strengthens the national economy by investing in schools, communities and safety net programs. The FY 2013 budget also includes a number of important investments in infrastructure that will spur much needed job growth in a time of economic uncertainty for many working and low-income families. It is critical that such investments take into account the persistently high unemployment in communities of color, and target spending to increase the economic security of the communities most impacted by the "Great Recession." Additionally, the budget includes important changes to the tax code that will lay the foundation for a fairer and more equitable economy.
Disparities of Women of Color in Retirement
Women of Color Policy Network
This brief analyzes retirement readiness among racial and ethnic minority women using measures of wage disparities and gaps, wealth accumulation and labor segmentation. This brief recommends strategies at local, state and federal levels to ensure the economic security of women of color in retirement.
2011 Federal Policy Review
Published by the Women of Color Policy Network, August 2011.
Women of Color Policy Network
This summary of legislative action pertinent to the Network's federal policy priorities assesses how noteworthy acts and trends in Congress affect the lives of women of color, their families, and communities. Covering the areas of economic security, social equity, and immigration, the brief provides updates on the status of reproductive rights, job creation, safety net programs, and the DREAM Act, among other topics. The Network's assessment of the policy implications indicates that although the federal legislative landscape offers some progressive opportunities for women of color, obstacles to their advancement loom large amongst ongoing budget and deficit reduction negotiations.
First to Fall, Last to Climb: Black Workers in the New Economy
Women of Color Policy Network
After decades of slow, but steady economic progress, the Great Recession of 2007-2009 erased many of the previous gains made by Blacks in the labor market. Black unemployment rates have consistently climbed since the recession was declared officially over in 2009, peaking at 16.5 percent in 2010. Employed Black workers, in turn, are disproportionately represented in low-wage, low-skill industries and occupations that offer minimal benefits or opportunities for career advancement. This policy brief provides a snapshot of how Black workers are faring in the labor market and poses policy recommendations for building the long-term economic security of Black workers, their families, and communities.
Resetting our priorities in environmental health: An example from the south-north partnership in Lake Chapala, Mexico
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):877-80.
Cifuentes E, Lozano Kasten F, Trasande L, Goldman RH.
Lake Chapala is a major source of water for crop irrigation and subsistence fishing for a population of 300,000 people in central Mexico. Economic activities have created increasing pollution and pressure on the whole watershed resources. Previous reports of mercury concentrations detected in fish caught in Lake Chapala have raised concerns about health risks to local families who rely on fish for both their livelihood and traditional diet. Our own data has indicated that 27% of women of childbearing age have elevated hair mercury levels, and multivariable analysis indicated that frequent consumption of carp (i.e., once a week or more) was associated with significantly higher hair mercury concentrations. In this paper we describe a range of environmental health research projects. Our main priorities are to build the necessary capacities to identify sources of water pollution, enhance early detection of environmental hazardous exposures, and deliver feasible health protection measures targeting children and pregnant women. Our projects are led by the Children's Environmental Health Specialty Unit nested in the University of Guadalajara, in collaboration with the Department of Environmental Health of Harvard School of Public Health and Department of Pediatrics of the New York School of Medicine. Our partnership focuses on translation of knowledge, building capacity, advocacy and accountability. Communication will be enhanced among women's advocacy coalitions and the Ministries of Environment and Health. We see this initiative as an important pilot program with potential to be strengthened and replicated regionally and internationally.
TANF Reauthorization: A New Conversation on Women and Poverty
Women of Color Policy Network
This policy brief critically assesses the effectiveness of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) policies and offers recommendations for strengthening the program's ability to provide an essential safety net for women of color and their families.
At Rope’s End: Single Women Mothers, Wealth and Asset Accumulation in the United States
Mariko Chang, PhD and C. Nicole Mason, PhD
A commissioned report for the Opportunity Series of the Women of Color Policy Network, this report examines the economic security and vulnerability of single mothers through the lens of wealth and asset accumulation as opposed to income and employment.
The American Single Mother
Women of Color Policy Network
Across race and age groups, education is the single greatest predictor of single-motherhood in America. This policy brief offers a profile of the American single woman mother, contemporary population trends, and the economic security of this growing demographic. See also our full report "At Ropes End: Single Women Mothers, Wealth and Asset Accumulation in the United States.